This is a text-searchable version of the Belfort Group's report on Contrails, Chemtrails and Weather Modification. The original PDF is large, and not currently text-searchable. I therefore made this page, using OCR software (Optical Character Recognition), which is searchable, though there may be some garbled words or sections - and the formatting has not been fully preserved from the original document..
There is a message below from Peter Vereecke who has been instrumental in getting this document compiled.
08 June 2010
Dear chemtrailfighters from all over the
On Saturday 29 th of May the Belgian Belfort-group organised in
Ghent an international symposion on the subject :
The illegal spraying of harmful
in the atmosphere by airplanes
also known as ‘chemtrails’
Based on the positive reactions we received and also our
own feeling it was a success. You can see the whole event via this link
One of the highlights was certainly the presentation of
Orange", a scientific report, which has been compiled on behalf of
the Belfort-group and of humanity by a team of experts with
relevant aviation background. This is very important : the authors
are inside experts. They know what they are talking about !
The document consists of 300 pages. As it is too
expensive for us to send it in a copy-version and as it not possible to send it
in attachment because the pdf-file is too heavy I ask you to download it via
this link :
By doing so you will be able to see and read the basic
text of 70 pages with 177 footnotes. If you should be interested in receiving
the appendices, please let me know.
We would like to ask you to spread this
document as broadly as possible to your politicians, administrations,
press, policy, justice, fellow-fighters, a.o.
The fight for a world without chemtrails will not be
easy, but now we have a peacefull weapon which offers evidence based prove that
the phenomenon is not internet gossip or conspiracy theory but – to put it
blatantly – that we are being sprayed.
This has been going on for years and it’s not going to
stop ! According to the conference of 18-22 th February of the AAAS they are
planning to put to 20 million tons of aluminium into the atmosphere
I have already delivered this ‘Case orange’-document in an outprint
copy personally to the Brussels headquarter of UNO
and Nato and eight embassies (USA, UK, Germany, France, Iran, Russia, China, Venezuela).
I have send it by email to all pressagencies, to all
embassies, in short to everyone who should be interested in this very important
As you know on August 17 th of 2009 I personally lodged a complaint
with the Belgian Justice department
against the intentional and systematically spraying of heavy metals,
chemical substances and virological filth into our atmosphere. As a result there is since October 2009 an
ongoing investigation into this matter.
I am now also prepairing to lodge two additional
- with the International Court
- the European court of human
I will do so not only on behalf of the Belfort-group but
also of you all.
Finally I would like to draw your attention to a very
intresting new intiative of the Lightworkers World. They are planning a worldwide protest
action against chemtrails on June 24 th.
You can read all about it on their website
I would like to conclude this email with the chorus lines
of our anthem, a very powerfull and encouraging song of Leonard Cohen
Ring the bells that still can
Forget your perfect offering
There is a crack in everything
how the light gets in
Keep the good work going, my dear friends and brave
Former mayor of Evergem
p/a Hooiwege 20
CONTRAIL SCIENCE, ITS IMPACT ON CLIMATE AND
WEATHER MANIPULATION PROGRAMS CONDUCTED
BY THE UNITED STATES AND ITS ALLIES
Compiled for the Belfort Group, Hooiwege 20 B-9940 Evergem Belgium
If we can stand up to them, all
Europe may be free and the life of the world may move forward
into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail, then the whole world, including
the United States,
including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of
a new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the
lights of perverted science.
Winston Churchill, This was their
finest hour' speech to the
House of Commons, June 18th 1940.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS:
Air Force Base
Airline Transportation Pilot
for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Airborne Early Warning and Control System
Deutsches Institut für Raumfahrt
Department of Defense
Electronic Counter Measures
Global Warming Potential
Frequency Active Auroral Research Program
Her Majesty's Stationary Office
Civil Aviation Organization
International panel for Climate Change
Air and Space Agency
Atlantic Treaty Organization
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks
of East Anglia
Union of the Socialist Soviet Republics
Very Low Frequency
World Meteorological Order
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:
This unclassified research paper
has been compiled on request of the Belfort Group, a Belgian environmental
watchdog. It highlights the specific problems associated with contrails
emitted by aircraft, the manipulation for geo-engineering or defense
purposes of some
of these trails by the United States government and the subsequent effect on
quality of life. In order
to force public debate on the subject this document has not only been
transmitted to embassies of states that organize weather manipulations
projects, news agencies
and interest groups in this field but also to organizations in countries
that are not considered as
allied forces by the United States and NATO.
Contrails are not the harmless
emissions of aircraft at high altitude that only have an esthetic impact on
the sky as meteorologists suggest. They do not only contain huge amounts of
water vapor, but also significant amounts of Carbon Dioxide, Nitric Oxide,
Sulfur Oxide and soot that have a significant impact on public health. In
that respect it is noteworthy that derogations for emissions of Hydrocarbons
and Carbon Monoxide have been
granted for engines of some military aircraft, which exceed civil regulatory
levels in a very
significant way. Chapter 3 contains a detailed description how contrails are
detailed chemical composition plus a very interesting case study of the
KC135 tanker & E-3 Sentry
(AWACS) aircraft, the latter being operated on a Luxemburg registration
without complying to civil standards.
Persistent contrails have a devastating impact on eco-systems on Earth. They
develop in men
made Cirrus cloud that can cover a significant part of the sky. It is
scientific evidence that those aviation-induced clouds already occupy 3 to
5% of the sky in Europe and this figure increases by 1 to 2% per decade. As
these types of clouds are not classified assuch
by the WMO, the World Meteorological Organization, there is obviously no
tendency to research this
subject thoroughly and subsequently civil aviation authorities and other
government bodies write the thesis of 'chemtrails' off as a hoax.
Nevertheless it is proven that the existence of these persistent contrails
has a negative impact on temperature and they can alter precipitations
levels. It also induces the dehydration of the stratosphere. Chapter 4
provides a summary of the most striking results of scientific research on
extensive history record of weather manipulation projects, conducted mainly
United States armed forces, the relationship between men made contrails and
its impact on different climatologie parameters
creates a scientific basis for a weather manipulation system. Chapter 5
contains a detailed overview of the major weather modification
operations in human history, starting from relatively innocent endeavors
such as cloud seeding with
silver iodide over ionospheric heating to large-scale geo-engineering
projects through commercial aviation. Patents, previously classified
documents, order forms for Barium and maps with daily spraying schemes
irrevocable denote the existence of a global military sponsored and
governmental approved project for alteration of the upper troposphere for
global control purposes. The technical details, including the nature of the
seeding material and its possible impact on public health, are also
included in chapter 5.
Finally the investigation group,
which wants to remain anonymous until further notice, comes to the final
conclusion that atmospheric seeding for the sake of military interests and
a global business model has a devastating impact on eco-systems on this
planet and quality of life
in general. This practice is therefore considered as unacceptable.
Give me a
long enough lever and a place to stand on and I will move the earth.
Archimedes (287 - 212 B.C.)
A distinction is made between
contrails, distrails, wingtip vortices and 'chemtrails'. In this research
paper only contrails and chemtrails are subject to an in-depth study.
the contraction of the words 'condensation' and 'trail', the condensation of
engine exhausts. The word dates back to World War II and contrails were
considered as a nuisance as they attracted enemy fighters in the fray.
bombers are on their way to Schweinfurt, emitting substantial
amounts of contrails. German pilots could easily pick
out the exact position of individual planes by their contrails.1
contrary to popular belief contrails are not exclusively formed by jet
aircraft, but also by propeller
driven airplanes, providing that their operating altitude is suitable for
their formation. This phenomenon is temperature related. As temperature
drops with 2°C/1000 ft altitude gain in a standard atmosphere and a cold air
parcel can only hold very limited water vapor any hot exhaust fumes
automatically condense into artificial clouds. This usually happens above
26,000 ft where the ambient temperature is below -40°C.
As can be noticed on the picture
above the intensity of the contrails vary with altitude / temperature,
the bombers on the top right emitting heavier contrails than the planes at
the bottom. A very
important feature is that these early contrails are short lived. However
modern jet aircraft with more powerful engines and high turbine temperatures
emit more persistent contrails, which usually 'trail' for 20-30 miles along.
from a Quantas Boeing 747, Australia (Source: Wikipedia, contrails)
& Space Power Chronicles, Schweinfurt - the battle within the battle for the
8th US Air Force, Capt. D. Reichert, USAF
may have strange shapes and even be horizontally dispersed over large areas
by jet streams, strong winds in the upper atmosphere that exceed a velocity
of 100 knots.
A distrail is the abbreviation for
'dissipation trail'. When an aircraft passes through a thin, stable cloud,
even when the conditions for the production of contrails are not met, it
produces a tunnel like path through that cloud.
Distrails are created as a result
of the elevated temperature of the exhaust gases absorbing
the moisture from the cloud. Clouds exist where the relative humidity is
100% and temperature and dew point are thus equal, but by increasing the
temperature, the air can
hold more moisture, so the relative humidity drops below 100% even for the
same absolute moisture density, thus causing the visible water droplets in
the cloud to be converted back into water vapor.
picture shows a contrail that changes into a distrail at the top right,
a layer of Altocumulus clouds.
2.3. WINGTIP VORTICES:
Airplanes fly as a result of an
equilibrium of lift, drag, mass and thrust. When a wing generates lift it
causes a vortex to form at the wingtips and sometimes also at the trailing
edges of the wing flaps. It causes wake turbulence, which is quite
persistent and potentially dangerous to other, mostly smaller planes. The
higher the angle of attack of the wing the higher the lift coefficient will
be with stronger vortices in the end. High angles of attack in commercial
aviation are achieved in landing configuration (flaps & landing gear down)
or during initial climb after take off (high thrust & body angle).
The reduction in pressure and
temperature across each vortex can cause water to condense and make the
cores of these wingtip vortices visible. The effect is more common on humid
days and in anticyclones with strong temperature inversions. These visible
cores contrast with contrails and distrails, the latter being produced
directly behind the engine
at higher altitude.
Military aircraft travelling at
transonic speed and making high performance maneuvers may
produce a vapor cone or Prandtl-Glauert singularity as a result of a sudden
drop in air pressure,
sometimes nicknamed the shock collar or 'shock egg'.
science Home Page, http://contrailscience.com/contrail-to-distrail/
A U.S. Air
Force F-22 'Raptor' executes a supersonic flyby at low altitude, producing
pronounced wingtip vortices and a 'shock egg'.
Chemtrail is the contraction of
'chemical trail' and is used by some sources to denote intentional
spraying by airplanes for military or political purposes and that may be
harmfulto public health. A more general name is 'aviation smog',
which combines contrails, distrails and 'chemtrails'. Authors referring to
chemtrails claim that this phenomena is much more persistent than contrails
and when sprayed in a grid it is able to cover vast area's.
officially denied by government sources many countries performed tests for 'cloud
seeding' to either generate precipitation where it was needed or to prevent
precipitation where it is unwanted. At this moment only the Russian and
Chinese governments admit that they use particular matter in order to
manipulate weather patterns.4
picture shows an interesting combination of contrails (right hand side),
distrails (bottom left) and possibly 'chemtrails' (left hand side) over
Belgium in the vicinity of Brussels, September 2009. Note that the contrails
have spread over
a large area.
Science, Britt R.R., Editorial Director, June 30th 2009, Picture by courtesy
of DOD/Petty Officer 1st
Class Dejarnett, U.S. Navy.
Jay, Meteorology News, 19th October 2009, 'Moscow testing cloud seeding'
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTRAILS
The intuitive spirit is a gift
from God. The rational brain is its servant. We have created a society that
worships the servant and has forgotten the gift.
Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
3. CHARACTERISTICS OF
3.1. PREVIOUS SURVEYS ABOUT
Meteorologists ignore and even deny the effects of aviation on the weather,
stating that contrails
and in a lesser extend distrails only have an esthetic influence on the way
looks. As they do not induce precipitation nor reduce the visibility or
affect sunshine they are not worth mentioning in a weather bulletin. On a
few occasions meteorologists refer to it as veil shaped clouds, actually
making the public belief that its origin is natural and
not human. Because contrails are not considered as a weather phenomenon
there are subsequently very few scientific surveys covering this topic.
Appleman was the first in 1953 to
present charts that forecast the likelihood of contrail formation based upon
the temperature profile of the 700-100-Hectopascal layer where commercial
jets usually operate.5 Pilie
and Jiusto in 19586, Scorer and Davenport in 1970 7 and
Hanson & Hanson in 19958 modified
his work. They identified a unique range within
which a contrail should theoretically form.
However, the lack of field tests
to verify these models and the fact that contrails have been
noted to form and spread during conditions deemed unfavorable according to
some of the models
described above. With the introduction of new technology, such as
satellites, more accurate surveys were within reach. This resulted for
instance in the development of a new empiric model developed by Travis to
predict widespread occurrences of contrails -.
But even with the aid of
geostationary satellites it proves extremely difficult to predict formation,
size and life span of contrails that may remain isolated or cluster in
groups. Extensive survey is mandatory in order to understand fully the
nature of contrails. However there is an economic drawback to this, as
aviation is the backbone of fast transport and commerce spanning the globe.
Any survey can potentially be turned down by lobby groups that do not want
to see unwanted attention unleashed on an ignorant public
with undesirable side effects of aviation. Officially science does not work
that way, but in practice
researchers generally do not bite the hand that feeds them. This is also why
contrails are politely classified as veil clouds.
Travis D.J, Carleton A.M. and
Lauritsen R.G. performed a very interesting survey immediately
after the 9-11 attacks in 2001, when all commercial aviation was stuck on
the ground for a period of
3 days. It was probably the only opportunity to perform a comparative study.
The results were only released two years later and proved the evidence
of jet contrail influence on climate,10 although
it was suggested by some other researches
that 'the sky was unusually clear during that period'.1
results of some of these surveys are used in the next paragraphs.
H., 1953: The formation of exhaust condensation trails by jet aircraft. Bull. Amer. Meteor.
R. J., and J. E. Jiusto, 1958: A laboratory study of contrails./. Meteor., 15,149-154..
R. S., and L. J. Davenport, 1970: Contrails and aircraft downwashj. Fluid
Mech., 43, 451-464..
H. M., and D. M.
Hanson, 1995: A reexamination of the formation of exhaust condensation
jet aircraft. J. Appl.
Meteor., 34, 2400-2405.
J.T, An Emperic model to predict widespread occurences of contrails,
Society, Volume 36, Issue 9, September 1997.
Travis D.J., Carleton A.M. and Lauritsen R.G, Regional variations in U.S.
diurnal temperature range for
the 11-14 September 2001 aircraft groundings: evidence of jet contrail
influence on climate, Journal of
Climate, Volume 17, March 1st 2004.
Kalkstein and Balling Jr., Climate Research, 26,1-4, 2004
3.2. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF
3.2.1. Standards for
In order to understand what is
being done, we first have to understand some basic concepts.
A jet engine is an internal combustion engine, just like an automobile
engine is. In a jet
engine, the fuel and an oxidizer combust (or burn) and the products of that combustion
are exhausted through a narrow opening at high speed.12
The substances contained in a
contrail depend on the following parameters:
type, its by-pass ratio and its pressure ratio & rated output: newer technology
is usually much more environmentally 'friendly'.
Type of fuel: modern jet engine
fuel is primarily kerosene, which is a fossil fuel. However a distinction
can be made between civil and military operations. Civil airplanes used in
commercial aviation fly on JET A-1, while aircraft used for defense
operate on a different fuel that provides optimal viscosity, heat sink and
thermal stability in any operational theatre ranging from arctic to
equatorial.13In this respect it is noteworthy that NATO-forces
currently use JP-8 (Jet Propellant 8),
a relative new fuel type whose additives are legally protected by a patent.
setting: at take off power and cruise setting combustion is optimal, burning more
than 99% of the fuel through complete combustion to carbon dioxide and
water. At idle conditions, much less fuel is consumed and, in the interest
of maintaining stable combustion at lower power conditions, some sacrifice
efficiency occurs even though this inefficiency is still only a percent or so.
Any combustion inefficiency of Hydrocarbon fuel will result in emissions of
some combination of CO and incompletely oxidized Hydrocarbons, as well as
Maintenance standards and engine age: older engines or retrofitted power
plants (e.g. upgrade to stage III of obsolete DC-8 aircraft in the years
2000 and beyond) emit
significantly more pollutants than newer designs. Nano sized
Picture by courtesy ofAerospaceweb.org.
Shawn P. Heneghan and William E. Harrison III, JP8+100:
the development of high thermal stability
fuel, Aerospace Mechanic Division, University of Dayton, OH and USAF Wright
Laboratories, N. Wright
Patterson AFB, OH, 6th international conference on stability and handling of
liquid fuels, Vancouver,
October 13-17 1997
Aircraft Engine Speciated Organic Gases: Speciation of Unburned Organic
Gases in Aircraft Exhaust,
Assessment and Standards Division Office of Transportation and Air Quality
and AEE-300 - Emissions Division Office of Environment and Energy Federal
Aviation Administration, FAA publication. May 2009.
originating as a result of wear
may also appear in the contrail. The same problem occurs in countries where
maintenance standards are somewhat lower.
3.2.2. Chemical composition of
jet aircraft emissions:
fossil fuels primarily produces the following gaseous emissions:15
Carbon Dioxide (C02).
amount of water vapor (H20) that immediately freezes upon contact
free air. This makes the contrail visible for the human eye.
oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxide (N02), which together are called NOx.
Sulfur Oxides (S02).
However very few tests have been
performed in order to assess and evaluate a detailed chemical
composition in terms of Hydrocarbons (HC) of contrails. Of special interest
is the survey of the US
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA)
of May 2009, which uses data from a set of studies initiated by NASA called
Aircraft Particle Emissions experiment (APEX). This project was supported by
a wide range of sponsors (NASA, FAA, CARB, EPA, DoD ...) and focused
attention on commercial aircraft Particulate Matter (PM) emissions.
The main objective of the APEX
research was to characterize both gaseous and particulate
emissions to advance the understanding of emissions from commercial aircraftengines.
APEX1 was conducted in April of 2004 with a NASA-owned DC-8 aircraft equipped
with CFM-56-2C1 engines. APEX2 was conducted in August 2005 for typical in-use
aircraft engines (CFM56 engines on B737 aircraft), APEX3 testing was
conducted in October and November of 2005 spanning a range of engines from a
small business jet, through a modern regional turbofan, a single-aisle
transport turbofan, to a large high bypass ratio turbo fan, representing
five different engine types, some measuring more than one example. In all
studies, exhaust plumes were sampled at the engine exit plane and several
downstream measurement locations.
Test results on the CFM56-3
engines running on JET A-1 fuel revealed that the most important compound In
emissions is Ethylene, followed by Formaldehyde, Acetylene,Propene, Acetaldehyde
and another 46 substances including Benzene. The most important
compounds of Hydrocarbon engine emissions on a molar basis are as follows:16
is NASA Facts, Glenn Research Center, Article FS-2000-04-010-GRC,
Safeguarding our atmosphere, Glenn Research reduces harmful aircraft
P. Heneghan and William E. Harrison III, JP8+100:
the development of high thermal stability fuel, Aerospace Mechanic Division,
University of Dayton, OH and USAF Wright Laboratories, N. Wright Patterson
AFB, OH, 6th international conference on stability and handling of liquid
October 13-17 1997 .
Ratio (mmole/ mole)
ratio (mmole/ mole)
The other 41 compounds have a
weight below 0,030 mmole per mole. Full test results are included in
appendix 1, page 6.
3.2.3. Impact of fuel
specifications on aircraft engine emissions:
commercial and military aviation the following fuel types are being used :
aviation and some air forces not being a NATO-member (e.g. Austrian
as analyzed in paragraph 3.2.2. nowadays also used in recreational
aviation & flight training, referred to for fiscal purposes as Aero
Airforce, NATO Code
Kerosene - Gasoline, phased out in 1996 in favor of JP-8.
Navy, NATO Code
use in naval operations, highest flash point, higher than JET A1
designed for supersonic operations above Mach 3 (Example: former
Force, NATO Code
JP-4, transition should be completed by the year 2010.
Aircraft operators are constantly
refining their fuels to deal with specific performance concerns.
A major problem with gasoline is that it has what is known as a low
"flashpoint." This is the
temperature at which it produces fumes that can be ignited by an open flame.
Gasoline has a flashpoint of around 30 degrees Fahrenheit (-1 degree
Celsius). This makes fires much more likely in the event of an accident. So
engine designers sought to develop engines that used fuels with higher
The U.S. Air Force during the
1990s switched from JP-4 to JP-8 because it had a higher flashpoint and was
less carcinogenic, among other things. By the mid 1990s, the Air Force
further modified JP-8 to include a chemical that reduced the buildup of
contaminants in the engines that affected performance. JP-5 has even a
higher flashpoint than JP-8, but its high cost limits its use to aircraft
carriers. JP-8 has a strong odor and is oily to the touch, which makes it
more unpleasant to handle and less safe in some ways.
BP, the history of Jet fuel, www.bp.com.
personnel who work with it complain that it is difficult to wash off and
and other physical problems.18
big and ever increasing with the military operations in Iraq, Afghanistan
and the restless
efforts on 'war on terror'. About 60 billion gallons (227 billion liters)
were used worldwide by the late 1990s, with the U.S. Air Force, Army, and
NATO using about 4.5 billion gallons (17 billion liters). It is also used to
fuel heaters, stoves, powered electric generators, and combat vehicles. The
M1 Abrams battle tank also uses JP-8 in its gas engine turbines. The use of
a single fuel for most military applications would greatly simplify wartime
A latest development is JP-8+100,
a version of JP-8 with an additive that increases its thermal stability by
56°C (100°F). The additive is a combination of a surfactant, metal
deactivator, and an antioxidant. It was introduced in 1994. The additive
reduces coking and
fouling in engine fuel systems. Commercially, this additive is used in
Boeing aircraftoperated by KLM, and
in police helicopters in Tampa, Florida. It is also used as fuel for
Canadian CF-18 Hornets.
Of special concern is the
comparison between JET A-1 and JP-8 / JP-8+100. Officially the
fuel types are similar, except that the military variant contains additional
inhibitors, lubricants, and antistatic agents.19 A
patent protects the exact composition
of additives of JP-8, which is quite obvious in order to prevent espionage
andtransfer of technology to hostile parties.20 Nevertheless
it is possible to establish a comparison between Jet A-1 and JP-8+100 as
several civil organizations are part of the engineering program.
interesting is the conclusion of the 6 International Conference on
Stability and Handling
of Liquid Fuel, held in October 1997 in Vancouver, Canada. In this paper the
effects of the selected additives in JP-8+100 are examined on properties
that are unrelated to thermal stability characteristics. For instance the
comparison between Jet A-1 and JP-8
of additive 'Specific Aid 8Q405' is of special interest.21 For
a given concentration the
conductivity of JP-8 jet fuel is much higher, which underlines the
usefulness of the proposed additives. However one can logically assume that
aircraft engine emissions will also significantly increase as a result of
these additional icing inhibitor, corrosion inhibitors, lubricants, and
antistatic agents. Official tests results have never been released by the US
government, which is also the beneficiary of the patent.
The full paper of the 6l International
Conference on Stability and Handling of Liquid Fuel, as
well as the detailed specifications of military aviation fuels are included
in appendix 2.
11 April 2008 Superseding MIL-DTL-83133E 1 April 1999
Detail Specification Turbine Fuel, Aviation Kerosene Type, JP-8 (NATO F-34),
NATO F-35, and JP-8+100
patent 20050274063 - jet fuel additive concentrate composition and fuel
methods thereof, filed June 13th 2003, published December 15th 2005.
2i B. Dacre and J. Hetherington, Electrical Conductivity of HITTS Additive
Packages for the JP-8+100
Program, Rutherford Laboratory, Royal Military College of Science, Swindon,
UK, 1997, Table 1, page
3.3. AIRCRAFT EMISSION
3.3.1. Regulatory standards:
Engine emissions for civil
aircraft are regulated. The UK Civil Aviation Authority publishes a
databank with information on exhaust emissions of only those aircraft
engines that have entered
production. Engine manufacturers, who are solely responsible for its
accuracy, provide this information based on a test run. It was collected in
the course of the work carried
out by the ICAO Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) but
has not been independently
verified unless indicated. The UK CAA is hosting this Databank
of ICAO and is not responsible for the contents, weak
manufacturer provides data, based on few tests. Its reliability is not
any agency. Therefore one must rely entirely on the quality system of that
aircraft are actually exempted from this regulatory system as some aircraft
are equipped with engines that are no longer used in commercial aviation.23 Although
aircraft equipped with older engines mostly do not have a noise certificate
and are subsequently denied landing rights on civil airports they can still
cross our airspace and land on AF Bases where those restrictions do not
As ICAO only publishes standards &
recommended procedures, which must be integrated
into national legislation, some countries can promulgate derogations on emission
The regulatory standards are those
found in the Standards & recommended procedures of the ICAO, Annex 16,
Volume 2 (subsonic engines), Part III and include a standard for smoke,
unburned Hydrocarbons (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx):
Smoke Number (SN)
83,6 x (F<*>)0'274 or
50, whichever is lower; and Fco = rated engine output
Dp/Foo = 19,6;
and Dp = mass in grams of any pollutant emitted during thereference
landing and take off.
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Dp/F°o = 118
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)
Variable level in function of engine age and engine pressureratio,
/ Fœ =
40 + 2FTo* (production before 31-12-95)
And DP / Fco = 36 + 1,6o° (engine
pressure ratio 82,6 ormore)
And Yl00 = engine
appendix 3 for a detailed explanation of these parameters.
ICAO Aircraft Emissions Engine Databank, UK CAA, Updated Julylôth 2007.
Aircraft Engine Speciated Organic Gases: Speciation of Unburned Organic
Gases in Aircraft Exhaust,
Assessment and Standards Division Office of Transportation and Air Quality
and AEE-300 - Emissions Division Office of Environment and Energy Federal
Aviation Administration, FAA publication. May 2009, page 3.
ICAO Aircraft Emissions Engine Databank, chapter 7, regulatory standards, UK
Study: civil versus military engine emissions.
of these regulatory levels was a good move to wipe out obsolete commercial
jet Aircraft, unless the engine were retro fitted and upgraded to stage III.' Furthermore
the databank includes data of engines, which do not have to comply with the
emission standards, but instead received wide derogations. This clearly
shows that this system is not fail safe, as it leaves too many backdoors.
In order to make a
point let us examine more closely 3 different engine types:
PW4048, new generation, which equips the Boeing 777.
JT3D-3B that is still used on KC135 and B-52H bombers.
CFM56-3C as used on the NASA APEX research as set in paragraph 3.2.2.
Engine tests on the Pratt & Whitney PW4084 as used on the Boeing 777 were
performed from April 26th till May 2nd 1994 for the measurement of data for
the ICAO data bank.26
tanker, which is the military version of the Boeing 707, is equipped with
tested between 1972 and 1974. Another version, the E-3 Sentry, better known
as theAwacs (Airborne Early Warning and Control System), is equipped
with TF33-PW100A of Inter Turbine Technologies, which are not included in
the ICAO Aircraft Emissions Engine Databank2
Navigation (Aircraft Noise) Regulations, Statutory rules 1984 N°188 as
amended, February 22nd
2002, Office of Legislative drafting, Attorny-General's Department,
Boeing Photo, credit K63367-05
Courtesy of the United States Department of Defence
Comparison of aircraft emission data as obtained on the test data sheet
between the three
engine types reveals quite interesting information:
CFM56-3C (APEX test)30
Smoke Number SN (standard
Hydrocarbons HC (standard19,6)
Carbon Monoxide CO (standard118)
Oxides of Nitrogen NOx(standard
42,69 for KC135; 79,38 for B777; 23,35 for theAPEX test
The test results have to be
interpreted as follows:
data obtained with the CFM56-3C-1, labeled in green color in the table, acts as
reference. This engine type meets all regulatory standards and will be used
to establish the HC-emissions by the other engine types.
aircraft such as the KC135 tanker and the strategic bomber B-52H do emit substantial
amounts of gaseous emissions. The NOx value of the JT3D-3B engine is lower
than the data for the Boeing 777 engine due to its lower engine pressure
ratio. To put in simpler words: the more engine power available the higher
the emission of Nitrogen will be. This is considered as normal.
some unknown reasons derogation for the JT3D-3B engine has been granted in
the ICAO data sheet (see appendix 3): 395,4 for the HC-parameter and 328,2
for CO. This is in fact an
increase of a very roval 2017,6% for the emission of Hydrocarbon and 278.2%
for Carbon Monoxide.
one extrapolates the test results as published in paragraph 3.2.2 for the
CFM56-3C engine the actual
weight of each chemical compound is magnified by an unknown factor. One can
assume that for instance the emission of Ethylene could well exceed a
hundredfold the test data of 0,77 emission ratio in mmole / mole (see
appendix 1). There is no doubt that operation of airplanes with such
obsolete engines has a negative influence on public health.
from some minor airline companies on remote places the JT3D-3B engine is
exclusively in use in military forces that are not subject to any
restrictions of that kind.
Although no data is available for engines used on the E-2 / E-3 Sentry
Awacs' model one can assume that its emissions are similar, because some air
forces such as the Royal Air Force, the French Armée
de l'Air and
the Saudian forces already have retrofitted their E-3's with more
Copies of the ICAO documents for
the 3 engine types can be found in appendix 3.
Engine Exhaust Emissions Databank, Subsonic Engines, PW4084, July, 18th
Engine Exhaust Emissions Databank, Subsonic Engines, JT3D-3B, October, 1st
Engine Exhaust Emissions Databank, Subsonic Engines, CFM56-3C-1, October,
188.8.131.52. Production numbers
of the KC-135 Stratotanker:
to know if excessive emissions of these military aircraft are statistically
must assess how of them have been build and the percentage of military
traffic in global aviation. Production of the KC135 ceased in 1965. In
1988 Boeing Company performed
a mid life upgrade on 746 airplanes, clearly denoting the long active
service of that airplane.31About 410 airframes have been upgraded
since with CFM56 engines.32
Additionally a batch of 33 E-3
Sentry aircraft has been build of whom 17 are in use in NATO forces. These
aircraft, which have not been retrofitted with CFM-engines33,
operate mainly from Geilenkirchen AFB (German - Dutch border) with a
multinational crew under Luxemburg flag with apparently a civil registration
number. The reason for this is quite complex. In summary official NATO
sources state that it is not possible to use markings
of all member countries and they had to find a member nation 'whose
legislation in this area was sufficiently accommodating to provide the Force
Commander with enough latitude
and flexibility to make up his crews as required and organize maintenance
Registration of the E-3As with NATO's smallest member nation, Luxemburg, was
flag of Luxemburg on the tail section and underneath the wing of this E-3A
AFB. Its registration number is a civil LX-code. This airplane is still equipped
with older TF33-PW100A engines (credit: official NATO AWACS website).
quite intriguing that airplanes with a Luxemburg (semi) civil registration
do not need to comply
with the ICAO engine emission databank and can do things at their own
convenience. Furthermore Mr. D. Rumsfeld, former minister of defense under
the Bush administration,
declared that an upgrading program of the B-52 and KC-135 would only be
partly implemented as a result of cost cutting programs.35 A
NATO survey suggests that the
Awacs aircraft are 'sustainable beyond 2025'. 6
These old aircraft with high HC- and CO-emissions are likely to stay in the
air for a while. The fact that Geilenkrichen AFB will not be closed in the
year 2025 as planned but even see its runway extended underlines
3i Boeing Integrated Defence Systems website, Stratotanker overview.
News, USAF expands CFM56-2-powered RC-135 fleet, July, 22nd 2002.
News, USAF expands CFM56-2-powered RC-135 fleet, July, 22nd 2002.
Official NATO Airborn Early Warning and Control Force website www.e3a.nato.int,
FAQ, Question 14 'Why is there a red lion on the tail?'
Security, SECAF lays out case for tanker upgrade, Master sgt S. Elliott, Air
Force Print News, March 7th, 2003.
Airborne Early Warning and Control Program, US Air Force Maj. Gen. G.
Winterberger, NAEW&C Force Commander and P. McCaffrey NAPMA, Plans and
Evaluation Division, March 2nd, 2005.
184.108.40.206. Percentage of
military traffic in global aviation:
the majority of air traffic on this planet is civilian, military operations
the most important segment in aviation38:
of each Segment's Daily Tr«rffi
B 9 10 11
1? 13 14 15 16 W 18 13 ÜÜ ¿1
82 S3 Local Hour
According to the Eurocontrol
statistics military traffic is actually the biggest segment between 8 AM and
3 PM. Of course not all military traffic consists of KC-135 tankers and E-3
Sentry aircraft, but one must bear in mind that very substantial resources
in an Air Force are used to keep the Defense Force (Multi Role Units &
Ground units in crisis zones) operational and this includes a lot of
logistics in the form of transport wings. This does not only include modern
aircraft as the C-17 Globemaster but also obsolete planes as
the Lockheed C-130, which is still in use in many Air Forces and is not
subject to study in this
when taking into account that some part of civil cargo traffic is performed
on behalf of the military then we can assume that the military segment tops
above 10% at regular
220.127.116.11. Conclusions of this
The logical conclusion obtained by
combining the data as mentioned above is that the military
segment is statistically important and that airplanes with excessive HC-,
CO- and NOx-emissions are
still widely used, although airplanes such as the KC135 and E-3 'comply'
with ICAO-Standards and Recommended Procedures.
This is actually unacceptable in
the view of the efforts being made by civil operators in order
to comply with environmental requirements. Efforts should be made by
politicians to phase out
those aircraft equipped with engines that do not meet the basic regulatory
levels as set in the ICAO. This encompasses the workforce of about 300
KC-135 in the United States and all of the E-3 Sentry aircraft based at
Geilenkirchen. In this respect it is a total contradiction that these
aircraft are allowed to operate under a Luxemburg LX-registration
number, bearing in mind that its engine types are even not listed in the
37 De Limburger,
Limburgs dagblad, 'Basis Awacs blijft ook na 2025 gewoon open', December
Eurocontrol Trends in Air Traffic, Volume 5, Dependent on the dark: cargo
and other night flights in
European Airspace, 2009.
4. EFFECTS OF
CONTRAILS ON CLIMATE
No more than a few decades remain
before the chance to avert the threats we now confront will be lost and the
prospects for humanity immeasurably diminished. We, the undersigned members
of the world scientific community, warn all humanity what lies ahead. A
great change in the stewardship of the Earth and life on it is required if
misery is to be avoided and our global home on this planet not to be
Scientists, warning to humanity", document signed by
1600 senior scientists from 71 countries, published in Time,
Planet of the Year, November 18th 1992,
Publication rejected by the New York Times and Washington
Post as not newsworthy
4. EFFECTS OF CONTRAILS ON
4.1. Effects of contrails on
4.1.1. Characteristics of
Cirrus clouds (WMO abbreviation Ci) are
formed in a natural way when water vapor freezes
into ice crystals at altitudes above 8000 meters (26,000 ft) in the higher
part of thetroposphere. The exact altitude depends also on the height
of tropopauze, the boundary with the stratosphere and the higher levels of
earth's atmosphere. That means that Cirrus clouds in polar regions will
appear at a much lower altitude than at the equator.
Due to the sparse moisture at a
high altitude, Cirrus clouds are very thin. Fall streaks, sometimes
also called Virgae, form when ice crystals fall from Cirrus clouds. The
change in wind with height and how quickly these ice crystals fall determine
the shapes and sizes the fall streaks attain. Since ice crystals fall much
more slowly than raindrops, fall streaks tend
to be stretched out horizontally as well as vertically. Cirrus streaks may
be nearly straight, shaped like a comma, or seemingly all tangled together.
As wind velocity increases with altitude they may be spread over large
areas. This is particularly the case in the vicinity of jet streams, which
splits the cells of the different tropopauze layers. Sometimes
one can even see the clouds moving fast from the ground.39
There are other cloud types
associated with Cirrus such as the Cirrostratus (WMO abbreviation
Cs) and the Cirrocumulus (WMO abbreviation Cc), but these are generally related
to incoming frontal systems and are further omitted from this survey.
Cirrus clouds look thin they may occupy a significant part of the sky up to
even more in some areas - in meteorological terms called 'scattered' (SCT)
up to 'broken' (BKN). Transmittance of direct and diffuse sunlight is about
Global map of average Cirrus cloud
cover based on the ISCCP cloud database for the period 1984 - 1999 (in %
WMO website, Meteoroligical Codes for high altitude clouds.
Is there a trend in Cirrus cloud cover due to aircraft traffic?, F. Stordal et al., Atmos.
Chem. Phys., 5,
Changes in the Cirrus cloud cover
in percentage between the two periods 1992-1999
4.1.2. Impact of Cirrus clouds
The climate of the Earth results
from an energy balance between absorbed sunlight and radiative losses of
heat from Earth and its atmosphere to space. Clouds are an important
modulator in this balance. Clouds reflect sunlight back toward space, which
reduces the solar energy available to the Earth - also called the Albedo
effect. Clouds also reduce radiative heat losses to space (greenhouse
effect). Which of these two opposing processes
dominates depends on many parameters including cloud particle composition,
cloud structure, cloud cover, and cloud location. Changes to only one of
these parameters can have
significant implications for climate.42
as footnote 40.
S., Cirrus Clouds and climate, NASA Ames Research Center webpage.
greenhouse effect is weak for low altitude clouds, so their Albedo effect
dominates and they cool the Earth's climate. In
contrast, cold high altitude Cirrus clouds may either cool
or warm the climate.
This will prove to be a key element whether to determine if weather
modification programs are being conducted on the planet in order to reduce
Cirrus clouds have thus a strong
greenhouse effect, which may outweigh their Albedo effect losses. As the
importance of both opposing effects depends critically on little understood
Cirrus properties, theoretical calculations of the climatic effects of
Cirrus are controversial. The main uncertainty stems from a current
inability to calculate the scattering
of sunlight in Cirrus clouds, since they contain a multitude of ice crystal
shapes and sizes, and are
irregular in structure. Even more, Stefan Kinne of the NASA Ames Research
Center states clearly that the Cirrus Albedo effect is severely
underestimated by calculations.43
proves that knowledge in this field of science is quite limited and
extensive research is
mandatory in order to fully understand the impact of Cirrus clouds on
climate. In this respect
it is noteworthy that evidence of thin Cirrus clouds in the Stratosphere has
already been established.44
4.1.3. Development of contrails
into Cirrus clouds:
Contrails, a man made phenomena,
are not listed as such in the WMO cloud coding. In the
high cloud section of the document the only possible link with contrails is
the 'Cirrus in the form of
hooks, filaments, or both, progressively invading the sky' - WMO code 0509,
section 4. Refer to appendix 4 for the full cloud coding as provided by the
Because contrails are not listed
in the WMO decoding table there is logically no instrument
to catalogue them or to make them an inherent part of a weather forecast
(TAF in aviation). When
contrails turn into Cirrus clouds they are just incorporated in the actual
weather report (METAR in aviation). As there are no instruments for
measurement most meteorologists just limit their impact on climate as being
Not all contrails develop into
Cirrus clouds and if they do, what is the exact scientific base? Well,
aircraft emissions as explained in paragraph 3.2.2. are actually aerosols, microscopic
particles suspended in the air.45 They
act like seeds: water molecules can condense
or freeze on to them to form cloud particles.
Sulpheric Acid (H2S04)
increases as a result of gas-phase oxidation processes. Soot particles
become chemically activated by adsorption and binary heterogeneous
nucleation of Sulphur Trioxid (S03, a chemical compound of
Sulphur and Oxygen) and H2S04 in
the presence of H20,
leading to the formation of a partial liquid H2S04/H20
coating. Upon further cooling, volatile liquid H2S04/H20
droplets are formed by binary homogeneous nucleation, whereby the chemi-ions
act as preferred nucleation centers. These aerosols grow in size by
condensation and coagulation processes (clotting).
Coagulation between volatile particles and soot enhances the coating and
forms a mixed H2S04/H20-soot aerosol, which
is eventually scavenged by background aerosol particles at
longer times. If liquid H20 saturation is reached in the plume, a
contrail forms. Ice particles
are created in the contrail mainly by freezing of exhaust aerosols.
Scavenging of exhaust particles and further deposition of H20
leads to an increase of the ice mass. The
Kinne S., Cirrus Clouds and climate, NASA Ames Research Center webpage.
Keckhut P., Hauchecorne A., Bekki S., Colette A., David C, and Jumelet C,
Evidences of thin Cirrus
clouds in the stratosphere at mid-latitudes, Service d'Ae'ronomie/Institut
Pierre-Simon Laplace, CNRS,
Received: 28 December 2004 - Accepted: 17 January 2005 - Published: 21
NASA Facts, Glenn Research Center, Article FS-2000-04-010-GRC, Safeguarding
Glenn Research reduces harmful aircraft emissions.
persists in ice-supersaturated air and may develop into a Cirrus cloud.
persistent contrails return residual particles into the atmosphere upon
evaporation. The scavenging
timescales are highly variable and depend on the exhaust and background
aerosol size distributions
and abundances, as well as on wake mixing rates.
means that the formation of contrails not only depend on the amount of HC-,
CO and NOx engine emissions but also on the fuel type being used. In this
respect it is likely that older engines operating on fuels with additional
additives as highlighted in the case study produce
more persistent contrails.
4.1.4. Impact of aviation on
the formation of men made 'Cirrus':
discussing the possible impact of contrails on climate one has to assess the
flying routes as well as the projected evolution of aviation on the globe.
The most congested traffic
patterns are situated between the East and West coast of the United States,
overhead the North Atlantic and between major cities in Europe. When we look
at the trend in commercial aviation the number of flights may well double in
the next ten years. In order to avoid airspace saturation on the busiest
routes Air Traffic Control agencies such as CANAC in Brussels anticipated
this development by introducing new transponders
(Mode S) in November 2009 to allow smaller separation standards between airplanes.
-'70 -eo 3
This map shows the distances flown
with aircrafts for the year 2000 between 9800 and 11600 m altitude.
It shows also 10 regions from which a correlation
between aircraft density and
Cirrus trends has been analyzed and proven.
there a trend in Cirrus cloud cover due to aircraft traffic?, F. Stordal et al., Atmos.
Chem. Phys., 5, (2005)21555-2161.
This graph shows
the projected growth in freight in freight ton kilometers (FTK), according
to estimation from Boeing Corporation in 2002.47
increase in air traffic for the year 2009 has been hampered by the worst
financial crisis since the great depression in the thirties, but it still at
its 2007 level - an increase of about 28% in comparison to the year when the
above graphics have been designed.
According to the
Quantify Project Group, which studies the climate impact of transport
systems in Europe, the amount of Cirrus clouds tends in general to decrease
on our planet, except in
regions with high air traffic. For Europe it is estimated that the
amount of Cirrus clouds, which can be attributed to air traffic increases by
1-2% per decade. Aviation induced cloud cover is maybe 3-5% over Europe.48
According to the
same source there are trends observed that increase in Cirrus cloud cover
and in the fuel used by aircrafts go parallel. However, the consumed fuel
increases over the years less fast (33% for 1992 to 2000) than the distance
traveled by plane (+44%) since engines became more efficient. Military air
traffic has also significantly increased since the second Gulf war and the
subsequent 'war on terror' - putting reserve squadrons of the National Guard
with older technology back in action.
Cambridge from the Stockholm Environment Institute even expressively states
that aviation poses a threat on different stakeholders:49
On global level:
affecting whole eco-systems.
Regional: e.g. the
Local: e.g. living
in the vicinity of Frankfurt airport.
in the immediate surrounding of Frankfurt airport.
possible diseases on all levels.
J and Cambridge H, Aviation and Sustainability, Stockholm Environment
48 EU FP6
Integrated Project Quantify, Quantifying the climate impact of global and
Whiteleg J and Cambridge H, Aviation and Sustainability, Stockholm
Environment Institute, 2004,
Cirrus cloud formation
DVT - Deep
Potential loss of habitat
Reduction in biodiversity
Local traffic congestion
Particulate matter (PM)
Contrails and formation of Cirrus
clouds were thus in 2004 already 'known' problems. However no action of any
kind has been taken to solve this issue. The situation is even worse:
international aviation emissions are excluded from the Kyoto Protocol and
therefore aviation 'enjoys the freedom to continue to pollute the
atmosphere'. It has now been
recognized by the UK government (HMSO, 2004) that if aircraft emissions are
taken into account, it will not be able to meet its target of 60% reduction
in greenhouse gases by the
There are other hints that any
effort to reduce jet engine air emissions and subsequent pollution is
systematically torpedoed for the sake of global economy. For instance the Reuters
news agency reported on November 23rd 2004
that local air pollution agencies in the
United States were pulling out of talks with the U.S. Environmental Agency
and the Federal Aviation Administration after 5 years of work with no
acceptable results. The aim of this voluntary program was to develop a
scenario for reduction of pollution and particulate
matter (PM) of jet aircraft.51 Recently
some new surveys have been conducted in
order to develop acceptable scenarios with a minimum financial impact on
companies for contrail control. For instance Robert Sausen of the
DLR-lnstitute for physics of the atmosphere
in Germany suggested a change in cruising altitude of commercial airplanes, with
the best option a reduction of 6000 ft.5 However
reducing the cruising altitude would signify a noticeable increase in fuel
consumption. It does not come as a surprise that these initiatives are kept
silent for the sake of return on investment, which is very low to negative
in the sector ('Start with a big fortune in aviation to acquire a small
undeniable that aviation has a significant impact on climate and some
scientists agree that
it has not been quantified. Sausen even describes in this survey the level
Same source as footnote 48, page 17.
Truth in aviation: efforts to reduce jet engine air pollution take a set
back, Newsletter of the Regional
Commission on Airport Affairs, December 2004.
Sauser R, Climate impact by aviation and minimising it by operational means,
DLR-Insttitut für Physik
der Atmosphere, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, meeting on environmental impact
of air traffic, Brussels,
May 3rd 2007.
knowledge on Cirrus clouds and
contrails as 'poor'. Refer to appendix 5 for an updated aviation radiative
forcing for the year 2000.
A different pathway is the
introduction of a carbon tax on aviation operations. Besides the fact that
it would be a very profitable operation for some interest groups it is clear
that many airline companies would be forced to file for bankruptcy if a
carbon tax would be levied on their operations, resulting in a net loss of 4
million jobs in the United States alone.53 Also
other countries such as Australia and India have objected against such tax and
even if the European Community votes such a law it would not only be delayed
significantly by rearguard battles, but low cost flying would certainly be a
thing from the past.
Bearing in mind that the Copenhagen summit in 2009 was
deliberately torpedoed by the main industrial nations with the United States
on top one can only conclude that the ongoing scenario is to develop options
that ensure 'Business as Usual'. Even the Kyoto Protocol
can be considered as mere occupation therapy for the development of a
lucrative cap & trade
4.2. EFFECT OF CONTRAILS ON
4.2.1. Variations in the daily
temperature range as a result of contrails:
Although it is clear that aircraft emissions have an
impact on climate it is quite difficult to measure this, because aviation is
just part of everyday life. However there has been one small window of
opportunity to perform a reliable scientific survey, at the time that all commercial
flights within the U.S. airspace were grounded for a period of 3 days after
the events of 11 September
This survey, performed by David J.
Travis, Andrew M. Carlton and Ryan G. Lauritsen, released in final form 2
years later (!), revealed a departure of average diurnal temperature range
(DTR) from the normal values derived from the 1971 - 2000 climatology data
for the indicated 3-day period in 2001. DTR values for 11 to 14 September
during the grounding period, measured at stations across the United States,show
an increase of about 1,1 °C
in comparison with the normal values.55
This increase is larger than any
during the 11-14 September period for the previous 30 years,
giving ammunition to critics who state that weather conditions at this
specific period were very
extraordinary and no scientific based conclusions could be taken. However even
more surprising is the fact that the 11-14 September increase in DTR was
more than twice the
national average for regions of the United States where contrail coverage
has previously been reported to be most abundant, such as the Midwest,
Northeast and Northwest regions.56
subsequent days after September 14th when
civil flight operations resumed there was
a temperature drop of about 0,8°C, denoting the return to 'normal'
conditions. This underlines the impact of contrails on global surface
temperatures with a noteworthy cooling
down effect, especially reducing the maximum day temperatures. A new proof
significantly affects climate emerged after the massive grounding in Europe
53 Kreutzer D,
Ph.D., The economic impact of cap and trade, testimony before the energy and
commitee U.S House of Representatives, April 22, 2009.
Nature, Volume 418, August,8 2002, Contrails reduce the daily temperature
range, a brief interval
when the skies were clear of jets unmasked an effect on climate.
Travis D.J., Carleton A.M. and Lauritsen R.G, Regional variations in U.S.
diurnal temperature range for
the 11-14 September 2001 aircraft groundings: evidence of jet contrail
influence on climate, Journal of
Climate, Volume 17, published March 1st 2004.
DeGrand J, Carleton A.M., Travis D.J. & Lamb, P.J. Appl. Meteorol,
39,1434-1459, published in 2000.
2010 due to the volcano eruption
in Iceland. It is too early to assess the quality of the survey, but the
Kings College in London claims that 'airports are air polluters'.
paper covering the regional variation in U.S. diurnal temperature range
during the 9-11 events, the summary from the magazine 'Nature' as well as
the press release of April
2010 from the Kings College London can be viewed in appendix 6.
4.2.2. Global warming potential
of aircraft engine emissions:
After the first reports of
'Climate Gate', the deliberate manipulation of weather data for IPCC
purposes that emerged on the surface during the Copenhagen summit for
climate change in 2009,
one can even wonder if there is any global warming at all57.
Climate change is a more appropriate term.
Nevertheless the potential of global warming of gaseous emissions from
aircraft engines is
not to be neglected. Global warming potential (GWP) is the impact a
greenhouse gas has on global warming expressed over a 100-year time period.
The GWP of each greenhouse gas depends on its ability to absorb heat in the
atmosphere. By definition, C02 is
used as reference case, with a GWP of 1.
warming potential values enable an increase or reduction of any of the
to be expressed as an equivalent reduction of C02over a 100-year
period. Table 4.2.2-1 lists the GWP of the greenhouse gases covered by Kyoto
as well as those others related to aviation emissions:58
GWP 100 year time horizon
The GWP of greenhouse gases is
quite high. According to the study of the Stockholm Environmental Institute
aviation emissions account for around 3.5 per cent of man's contribution
to global warming from fossil fuel use. By 2050, this percentage could grow
to between 4 per cent and
15 per cent (IPCC data from1999 and provided the data is not corrupted by
However this global warming potential is not realized as
can be concluded in the post 9-11 survey. There are three possible reasons
Climate change: this is the worst scientific scandal of our generation,
Daily telegraph, November 28th
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 1995: The Science
of Climate Change
(Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996), Table 2-9, "Radiative
Forcing of Climate Change,"
Whiteleg J and Cambridge H, Aviation and Sustainability, Stockholm
Environment Institute, 2004,
The cooling down effect due to the
formation of contrails and subsequent 'Cirrus' outweighs the Global Warming
Potential of the gaseous engine emissions. There are no known scientific
studies on this topic.
Additional additives have been incorporated in jet fuel in order to counter
A combination of both scenarios.
be explained in a different paragraph several patents and scientific
exist for cloud seeding in an attempt to counter global warming.
4.3. EFFECT OF CONTRAILS ON
Precipitation occurs when the
following conditions are met:
- There must be moisture in the
air. A cold parcel of air can contain less moisture
than warm air. Relative humidity
increases when the air parcel is adiabatically cooled
(e.g. orographic lifting) or moisture is added to that parcel (e.g. air mass picking
up moist from an ocean) or a combination of both.
nuclei, such as dust particles, must be abundant.
droplets or ice crystals must be heavier than the updrafts. Mounting air
are a result of instable air (cold air moving in over a warmer surface) and produce
cumuliform clouds, the Cumulonimbus or Thunderstorm being its supreme form.
The higher the updrafts the more violent the precipitation will be. In
stable weather conditions the droplet tends to fall as soon as it is formed
due to the limited
precipitation is much more likely in low-pressure areas where frontal
allowed to slip in. However thermal thunderstorms may develop at any place
except at the poles where temperatures do not permit this. A new development
in climate change is the
introduction of super cells with deep rotating updrafts that bust through
the stratosphere, with extensive hail and extreme turbulence as a result.
The crash of Air France flight 447 on its way from Rio
to Paris in June 2009 with the loss of 224 lives is probably attributed to
the presence of such cell on its flight path.
4.3.2. Relation between
contrails, air temperature and precipitation:
question arises if contrails and their switch into men made Cirrus have an
impact on precipitation.
In that respect 3 counter posing elements have to be distinguished:
engine emissions with extensive aerosol production deliver quite some
condensation nuclei on which droplets can form. This increases the
probability of additional precipitation.
as shown in the survey in paragraph 4.2.1 a significant temperature drop is
noted due to the formation of contrails. As cold air can contain less
moisture than a warm parcel of air precipitation could decrease.
Contrails are formed in the upper part of the troposphere the subsequent reduction
in temperature could trigger additional instability in the atmosphere. For
example an ascending air particle in a Cumulonimbus cloud would indeed meet
almost no resistance when nearing the tropopauze because it is always warmer
than the surrounding air. As a result it will bust through the tropopauze
and enter the stratosphere. Only the isothermal layer in the stratosphere
prevents the thunderstorm shooting much higher. To put it in different
words: contrails may induce
the formation of super cells. Very limited scientific field research has
on that topic, but this conclusion is only a matter of logic.
It is clear that there is a
relation between these parameters, but scientists have failed to quantify
the parameters. This is nothing new in meteorology: since the introduction
of the Bergeron-Findeisen precipitation theory in 1935 it has been
continuously evaluated and criticized60,
but scientists can still not determine why a single cumulus develops into athunderstorm
while its neighbor doesn't.
The same applies in this
discussion. A survey by Yun Qian and his colleagues, published in 2009,
revealed long-term observational data that both the frequency and amount of light
rain have decreased in eastern China for 1956-2005 with high spatial
coherency and this as a
result of increased aerosol concentration in the atmosphere.61 Aviation
has not been particularly targeted in this survey, but aircraft engine
emissions have to be considered as a variant on this.
Professor D. Rosenfeld of the
Institute of earth Sciences at the Hebrew university of Jeruzalem
(Israel) has come up with a surprising finding to the disputed issue whether
air pollution increases or
decreases rainfall. The conclusion of the study group is as follows: both
can be true, depending on local environmental conditions. The amount of
aerosols is the
critical factor controlling how the energy is distributed in the atmosphere.62 According to
this survey they followed the energy flow through the atmosphere and the way
it is influenced by aerosols and other 'airborne' particles. On this planet
there is indeed an interaction
of energy between the different cells within the troposphere in order to
obtain a life sustaining
temperature (15°C in the International Standard Atmosphere at sea level).
act twofold: on one hand they act like a sunscreen reducing the amount of energy
reaching the ground. Accordingly less water evaporates and the air mass at ground
level stays cooler and drier, with a reduced tendency to rise and form
I: Ice cloud microphysical model
Aerosols act as a sunscreen with a
subsequent reduction of energy reaching the ground. Some sources refer to
this phenomenon as 'global dimming'.63
A.B., An evaluation of the Bergeron-Findeisen precipitation theory, Monthly
« Qian, Y., D. Gong, J. Fan, L. R. Leung, R. Bennartz, D. Chen, and W. Wang
(2009), Heavy pollution
suppresses light rain in China: Observations and modeling,/. Geophys.
Res., 114, D00K02,
Rosenfeld D, Does air pollution increase rainfall?, Hebrew University of
Jeruzalem, September 5th
On the other hand, without natural
aerosols such as dust particles there would be no cloud droplets because
they act as gathering points for air humidity, the so called condensation
nuclei as explained in the previous paragraph. When the droplet is formed,
energy is released in the form of heat during the condensation process. This
energy level for the evaporation - condensation process is significantly
higher than during the freezing / melting process (540 Calories /g versus 80
Calories /g). Due to the released heat the air parcel gets lighter than the
surrounding air and is allowed to rise further. However, if there is a
surplus of these condensation nuclei as a result of natural activity (e.g.
Vulcan eruption) or men's intervention (e.g. industrial pollution,
contrails), the droplets never reach the critical mass needed to fall to
earth as precipitation because
there is just not enough water to share between all the aerosol particles.
Furthermore with a rising number
of droplets their overall surface increases, which on turn increases the
amount of sunlight
reflected back to space with subsequent cooling and drying of the Earth.
In a nutshell the study of Prof.
Rosenberg shows the following: with rising pollution, the amount of
precipitation at first rises, then maxes out and finally falls off sharply
at very high aerosol concentrations. Of even more interest is his
conclusion: The practical result is
that in relatively clean air, adding aerosols
up to the amount that releases the maximum of
available energy increases precipitation. Beyond that point, increasing the
aerosol load even further, lessens precipitation.' This opens of course an
interesting window towards future climate control by regulating the amount
of aerosols that are released in the upper troposphere. To put it in the
words of Prof. Rosenberg: The determination of this issue is one with
significant consequences in an era of climate change and especially in areas
suffering from manmade pollution and water shortages, including Israel'.
This is indeed very true: domestic water supplies are the emerging assets on
Earth. The outline of the survey of Prof. Rosenberg can be found in appendix
4.4. OTHER EFFECTS OF
4.4.1. Dehydration of the
stratosphere due to contrails:
extreme dryness of the stratosphere is believed being caused by
freeze-drying of air as
it enters the stratosphere through the cold tropical tropopause.
Sedimentation of ice crystals in the thin Cirrus may provide a significant
downward flux of water vapor. It has also recently been suggested that
gravity waves generated by convection may drive the formation
of ice clouds in the lower stratosphere and that precipitation of crystals
in these clouds may serve
as a stratospheric dehydration mechanism.6
intriguing article appeared on the USA Today website on January 28th 2010
in the very
evening hours, stating that water vapor may flatten the global warming
This statement has first been
published in the Science Journal by senior scientist Susan Solomon of the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Boulder, Colo. Solomon
was also a co-chair of one of the groups within the Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change that put
out the definitive forecast of global warming in 2007. The fact that the
IPCC got stuck in one of the greatest climate scandals revealed by the Daily telegraph
on November 28th 2009,
also better known as 'Climate Gate' with huge fraud of climatologie data
by Prof. Phil Jones of the University of east Anglia (UEA) over long years66,
does not improve credibility of any panel member.
In this respect it is noteworthy
that the UK Information Commissioner's Office that leads
E. J., 0. B. Toon, L. Pfister, and H. B.
Selkirk (1996), Dehydration of the upper troposphere and
lower stratosphere by subvisible Cirrus
Doyle R., water vapor may flatten the global warming trend, USA Today with
Associated Press, January 28th 2010.
Booker C, Climate change: this is the worst scientific scandal of our
generation, Daily Telegraph,
November 28th 2009.
the investigation decided that the
UEA failed in its duties but said that it could not prosecute those involved
because the complaint was made too late.67 Although
it looks that 'Climate Gate' will end in the bin as a result of
administrative red tape and carefully planned
lobby work, a new leak has already emerged on January 30th 2010
when the Daily Telegraph (again) published that the UN expert panel claims
on climate change are based on a student's dissertation and an article in a
At a closer look the claim in Mrs.
Solomon's '10/10/10 paper' goes even further: 10% decrease
in water vapor at 10 miles above our heads during the last 10 years has
slowed down the rate of earth's warming by 25%.69 The
question where the water vapor went to, remains open. But according to this
survey it is surprising how big the impact is of such 'small change' (10%!)
in water vapor on the surface climate. But according to that survey this
isn't an indication that predictions on global warming are overstated: "This
there isn't global warming," notes Solomon. "There's no significant debate
that it is warmer now than
it was 100 years ago, due to anthropogenic (man-made) greenhouse gases."
can be surprised that this survey has been ridiculed as a hoax in the
aftermath of 'Climate
Gate'. However when combining the study material obtained by Jensen in 1996 with
the very recent survey by Mrs. Solomon it is obvious that there is a link
between the occurrence of natural plus man made Cirrus clouds near the
tropopauze, the dehydration of
the stratosphere and the flattening of the global warming trend. When this
knowledge is linked with the surveys of previous paragraphs it becomes
crystal clear that aerosols emitted
by aircraft engines have a significant impact on precipitation patterns and
4.4.2. Other factors affecting
changes in precipitation patterns, surface temperature and stability of the
are quite measurable parameters there might be other intangible factors:
the most obvious side effects of the formation of contrails is the impact on astronomy.
One has seldom a clear sky available for observation in areas with dense air
changing cloud cover and subsequent temperature drop in the upper layer of the
troposphere, hurricane activity may be increased as a result of the released
instability. It is noteworthy that storms and major floods have more than
1981.70 No apparent
relationship between aircraft engine emissions, aerosols,
contrails and hurricane activity has been established yet on a
accepted that knowledge on man made Cirrus cloud is relatively poor and that study
of the impact of contrails on the Stratosphere is only in its initial
phases. However one can assume that it might have an impact on higher layers
and the ozone layer. Ozone depletion does not only occur as a result of
industrial activity, but
also due to multiple nuclear tests conducted in the 20thcentury.
Webster B., Scientists in stolen E-mail scandal hid climate data, London
Times, January 28th 2010.
Gray R. And Lefort R., UN Climate change panel based dims on student
dissertation and magazine
article, Daily Telegraph, January 30th 2010.
Solomon S., ten percent decrease water vapor in the stratosphere slows
earth's warming trend, the
Science Paper, January 28th 2010.
Global Environmental Outlook, GE04 Environment for Development, United
AND WEATHER MANIPULATION
'If the ionosphere is greatly
disturbed, the atmosphere below is subsequently disturbed."
Charles A. Yost, author of
"Electrical forces applied to basic weather phenomena", 1992.
5. CONTRAILS AND WEATHER
5.1. FROM 'CHEMTRAILS' TO
5.1.1. Scientific basis for a
weather manipulation system:
previous paragraphs it has been clearly denoted that man made contrails do
have a significant
and measurable impact on temperature and precipitation on the planet.
Especially the data obtained by Professor D. Rosenfeld (see paragraph 4.3.1)
proves to be quite solid to sponsor a weather manipulation theory, since
altering the aerosol doses in the atmosphere can either increase or decrease
opens a window on a scientific basis in order to produce scenarios to
counter global climate
change, providing that the designers of that system bear the following
considerations in mind:
Development of a reliable matrix
of aerosol ingredients versus field conditions.
Engineering of a efficient, reliable but low cost system in order to seed
Sponsorship through government agencies with a far-reaching commitment of captains
Actually all elements - except the
reliability factor - are in place in order to justify the creation
or even the existence of such a system: advanced technology is at hand and
financing the system through cap & trade systems ensures nearly unlimited
funding. If operated for
the benefice of mankind a weather modification could solve many
environmental issues, such as reversing desertification and avoid the worst
consequences of a global climate change.
from a military point of view the organization owning the property rights of
such a system also has capability to manipulate temperature and
precipitation patterns of other nations,
and this at very low cost. Imagine what could happen if such a system falls
in the hands of a 'rogue state': it would change global domination
patterns. Therefore it is unimaginable that civilians run a weather
modification system if it came into existence.
Conspiracy theories flourish
nowadays as never before. It is of no surprise that stories of weather
manipulation systems, such as 'chemtrails' and HAARP, already have found
their way to the Internet.
Policy makers write these off as a hoax, because there is no hard scientific
evidence for their existence. And if they exist, they are kept secret -
which is quite obvious. However it is common knowledge that government
policy annex history is manipulated at the discretion of the manipulated
state. There are countless examples of this in human history and 'Climate
Gate' is without doubt also one of them. All these elements necessitate a
closer look to the chemtrail phenomenon, starting from its origin. This is
covered in the next paragraph.
This chapter will furthermore not
only prove that weather manipulation through contrail formation
is not that fictional, but will also produce evidence through patents and
research documents that
this system is in place and fully operational.
5.1.2. Conspiracy theory
character of 'chemtrails':
With the huge explosion of
aviation traffic during the last 10 years it was a matter of time before
someone would question the ever-increasing amount of contrails. The first
reference to production of contrails for specific purposes as described in
paragraph 2.4, seems
to date from an article by William Thomas dated January 8th,
1999. In that text the suspicious
of three people about contrails is recounted. Soon afterwards this man was
invited onto a popular radio show at that time (Art Bell), marking the
beginning of a real
Internet phenomenon. Apparently
it has cross-fertilized itself. A comparison of Internet hits
for 'chemtrails' between the years 2004 and 2010 is as follows:72
Change in %
This reveals a number of
by the general public for the 'chemtrail' phenomenon has increased significantly
during recent years.
Images on the Internet with
contrails and / or 'chemtrails' have skyrocketed.
Mainstream news does not hook in
on the existence of 'chemtrails'.
relative strength and importance of the 'chemtrail movement' becomes quite
it is compared with other popular topics, such as global warming, UFO's and
'morgellons' (polymers floating in the sky):73
CHANGE in %
Tour de France
CHANGE in %
Tour de France
Contrail science, a brief history of'chemtrails', www.contrailscience.com
Combination of Contrail Science data and own investigation.
as footnote 72.
tables denote clearly that 'chemtrails' are widely regarded by the general
public as well
as mainstream news agencies as a marginal, dubious phenomenon that is
certainly not threatening everyday life and does not need further attention.
In this context it is noteworthy
that attention for global warming has fallen dramatically over the last
years. It is possibly a result of the ever-increasing controversy of that
with a deep widening economic crisis, necessitating people to keep their
feet on the ground. Or
perhaps there is just a shift in nomenclature: global cooling, climate
change... The sudden appearance of 'climate gate' related stories with high
hit rates on the Internet might support this theory.
more: association with topics that are not backed by hard scientific
evidence puts the
'chemtrail phenomenon' automatically in the esoteric or conspiracy theory
corner. There are 4 logical reasons for this:
Because the phenomenon is
basically Internet driven, there is no support whatsoever from scientists,
political parties or environmental organizations. It is striking that the
representative of the ecologist party (Grüne) in
Vienna even expletively
states that the subject is a mere conspiracy theory and there is neither time
nor resources available to study the subject.74
Most of the people posting the
'chemtraiP observations on the Internet are not academically qualified to do
so. Estimating the cruising altitude of a jet airplane is indeed a tricky
affair. Making the difference between contrails and 'chemtrails' is even
more challenging. Last but not least posting pictures of grid-pattern
contrails on the Internet without a valid caption does not promote any
scientific seriousness towards the subject.
Many websites that provide
information about 'chemtrails' also cover other subjects, such as the
existence of extra-terrestrial life on earth, global mind control programs
and other stuff. As a result of this any story about 'chemtrails' is treated
the same way as a hoax and this regardless the value of that information.
Only a handful Internet sites are
dedicated solely on 'chemtrails'. In fact they combine all 'chemtrail'
reports within a single state and post it on the Internet. Examples of these
arehttp://arizonaskvwatch.com/ and http://www.chemtrails-info.de.
These websites often offer test analysis of water samples and reports of spraying
actions. Sadly on many occasions the information presented contains
scientific errors or wrong interpretations.
Government instances officially
decline in a systematic way the existence of 'chemtrails'. On the other hand
all the available information on the Internet does not permit verification
of any 'chemtrail' claim. Anonymous reports, such as the testimony of Agent
Deep Shield' who claimed to be an insider in the 'chemtrail' business'75,
does again not improve credibility.
Last but not least there are a
number of websites that deny the existence of 'chemtrails' in a quite
cynical but scientific way. An example of this is http://contrailscience.com/chemtrail-mvths/.
Its Webmaster, known as 'Unicus', does
actually hide his real identity - adding fresh meat for the conspiracy
theory grinder that it might be a government agency. However it is
significant that this website deals with any of the websites mentioned
above, reducing the argumentation of 'chemtrail' protagonists to a piece of
Haderer C and Hies P., Chemtrails, Verschwôrung am
Himmel?; VF Sammler
Verlag 2005, Graz,
Idem as footnote 74.
AIRPLANES leave trails in the atmos-/\phere that can be picked up. if a spot
ter is quick enough, like those of gamp sought by a hunter. Some of them,
espe cially trails left by a plane's exhaust at high, cold attitudes, endure
for some time, while those made by wing tips creating vor tices are audible
as well as visible. Both of these types of airplane trails are
explained by condensation. Invisible water vapor in a plane's exhaust
condenses into a visible cloud when the vapor reaches an ex cess of what the
atmosphere will hold. Wing-tip trails add no water to the air. but aa their
vortices expand, the air tempera ture in them drops and the dew point is
reached if the vortices are strong enough aud humidity is high.
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MOVIMINT Of AIR, TOWARD
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h.avil» loadod pla
moy be heard
of o low
dive, it I* from »h»
wing-tip trail illmtralad at left, and ¡t
thot of the motor die» away
Home page illustration of the
'contrail science' website. Contrails already exist
since the beginning of aviation.
All these elements induce that a
scientific approach to 'chemtrails' automatically would compromise
researchers and their career. Moreover, who wants to 'chemtrail' the
population after all and for what sake? So in the best case the word is
badly chosen, because public health is supposed to be one of the backbones
of our consumer driven society. Nevertheless it comes as a surprise that
some lone authors were able to persuade their editor to publish their book
about 'chemtrails' - maybe because it has such a high conspiracy theory
level that sells well. Although it is impossible to review all publications,
here is a selection of them:
76 www.contrailscience.com. Popular
Science, March 1943, Page 55.
Chemtrails, Verschwôrung am Himmel?77
Rather chaotic book, with a
about other conspiracy theories.
Well documented with ample photographic
material, but without any hard
Contains a copy of a letter from a
member of the German parliament (Bundestag),
in which the limited spraying of barium and aluminum in the atmosphere is
Leonard G. Horowitz
the air: globalism, terrorism & toxic
author is a graduate of the Harvard School
of Public Health.
Chemtrails are linked with jeopardize of public
health and CIA's population control projects.
many traceable references on bioterrorism.
don't play this HAARP.79
Publication solely dedicated to HAARP.
the system as an extension of president's
Reagan 'star wars project' with the ability to manipulate weather patterns
and even produce earthquakes.
5.1.3. Establishment of a reliable research
Despite some interesting elements
in the publications mentioned above and the numerous
Internet articles It is quite clear that due to environmental bias it is
impossible to analyze
'chemtrails' in a profound and scientific way.
option to approach this subject in a serene way is to restart investigation
with new nomenclature and an acceptable research protocol that includes the
tracking of atmosphere and weather modification programs in Europe, the United
States of America, the People Republic of China and Russia / former USSR
with new searching tools, such as cloud seeding, geo-engineering and weather
force multiplication. The term 'geo-engineering' fits best, because it
encompasses all sorts of human intervention to manipulate climate patterns: atmosphere
seeding, marine cloud whitening research80, carbon storage
research and even cooling down the earth with a cloud of spaceships (!).81
study of pending patents covering weather- or atmosphere alteration: patent
holder Identity, application field, a feasibility study and implementation records.
Haderer C and Hies P., Chemtrails, Verschwôrung am
Himmel?; VF Sammler
Verlag 2005, Graz,
Austria, ISBN 3-85365-213-1.
Horowitz L.G., d.m.d., m.a., m.p.h., Death in the Air: globalism, terrorism
& toxic warfare, Tetrahedron
LLC, Sandpoint, U.S.A, 2009, ISBN 978-0-923550-30-1.
Manning J., Begich N. Dr., Angels don't play this HAARP: advances in Tesla
press, Anchorage, Alaska, U.S.A, second edition, 2007, ISBN 0-9648812-0-9.
Copenhagen Consensus Center, press release: top economists recommend climate
September 4th 2009, Copenhagen / Washington.
Angel R., Feasibility of cooling down the earth with a cloud of small
spacecraft near the inner
Lagrange Point [LI), University of Arizona, 17184-17189 PNAS November, 14th
2006, Vol. 103, N°46.
of recent scientific and military surveys regarding climate control or climate
change mitigation by means of cloud seeding.
Search through all available
channels to obtain actual solid evidence of weather modification
programs through reverse engineering: the existence of associations (academic,
political, IPCC) that support such programs, order sheets of seeding
material on behalf of government agencies and operational charts.
Witness reports, whether anonymous
or not, that do not include a valid reference for crosscheck will not be
included in the report. Photographic material in the context of this
research protocol shall only be released when the probability of error is
close to zero.
5.2. HISTORY OF
5.2.1. Period 1899-1940: the
research work of Nicolas Tesla:
From an agricultural point of view
mankind has always wished to intervene in weather patterns to avoid long
periods of drought or adverse weather. The first known research in the field
of engineering of nature forces is attributed to Nicolas Tesla (1856-1943),
a brilliant but still underestimated inventor in established academic
one of the most important contributors to the birth of commercial
electricity (AC) and is best known for his revolutionary developments in the
field of electromagnetism in the
late 19th and 20thcentury.
He clashed continuously with Edison's insistence that the United
States should stick to his DC-technology for power distribution and
electrical lighting - knowing that his system was far more efficient. The
fact that only Thomas Edison appears in history records and schoolbooks will
become quite obvious.
Tesla performed wireless power experiments near Colorado Springs and was able
to produce a 30-second golf ball sized lightning.
Left: publicity picture of a
participant sitting in Tesla's laboratory in Colorado Springs, circa 1900.
Right: actual photo of an experiment in Colorado Springs, during which the
bank of light is receiving power from a distant transmitter.82
J.P. Morgan, still one of the most
important banks on the globe, heavily financed his projects. The majority of
the money was spent in the construction of the Warden-Cliff tower,
which would be able to create voltages of 15 million Volt and 40-ft
pictures in public domain.
S3 Cheney M., Tesla: man out of time. Simon and Schuster, 2001, ISBN
Actual photograph of the
Warden-Cliff tower, prior to its demolition in 191784
This is also the reason why Edison was
However, just as Victor
Schauberger was in search of free energy through water vortices85,
Tesla was pursuing electric energy without wires. He patented this invention on
April 8th, 1905.86 Results
were satisfactory, but after Tesla admitted to his financiers that
an experimental power station on Long Island was to send wireless electrical
power as well as messages
his public career ended. Although he continued to invent and depose further
patents, he was kicked out of the spotlight for the sake of economic
interests of J.P. Morgan's shareholders, lionized in mainstream history
before the destruction of the Warden-Cliff tower in 1917, Tesla offered his
services for the development of a 'particle beam weapon' to the U.S.
department of war and was subsequent
kicked out of their office. Persuading people at that time that a magnifying
transmitter could beam up electrical energy to the stratosphere and bounce
it back to a predetermined
place on earth was indeed hopeless, given the level of technology at that
if this proves to be true Tesla did excite the Schumann cavity (Earth's
resonance frequency 7,83 Hz) already in 1899 - 53 years before W.O. Schumann
identified it scientifically. He also had a deep insight in the behavior of
more precisely the existence of a skip zone - the extension of a radio
signal well beyond the
horizon after reflection in the Heaviside layers (invention officially
attributed to Tellegen in 1933). A variant of Tesla's idea of the
'magnifying transmitter' has
been put in practice in the HAARP-system for study and manipulation of the
Aurora Borealis, although
its designers repeatedly stress that there is no analogy with Tesla's
Tesla's research work is quite
remarkable. In respect of this research one can conclude that he was the
first to perform experiments to produce lightning at will and to offer it
civil and military purposes. Similar projects to trap the enormous reserve
of electrical current of a single thunder flash have been undertaken since
then, but apparently without success.
In Switzerland the test facility burned even down. An Egyptian company,
Logic-co in Cairo, is one of the first enterprises that seem to specialize
exclusively in the collection of renewable electrical energy from lighting.
courtesy of the Nikole Tesle Museum, Belgrade, Serbia
Schauberger V., das Wesen des Wassers,
AT Verlag, München, 2006.
US patent 787,412, art of transmitting electrical energy through natural
mediums, through U.S. patent
Idem as footnote 82.
Seifer M. Dr., Nikolas Tesla: the history of lasers and particle beam
weapons, proceedings of the
international Tesla symposium, 1988.
5.2.2. Period 1940-1945: first
In both World Wars weather was a
considerable and sometimes decisive factor for success or disaster. Parallel
to this armies started to rely heavily on camouflage after the stalemate
that followed the initial German dash on Paris in 1914. Already less than
one year later the German field army developed man-made fog through
smokescreens in order to dissimulate troop movements or to go into the
offensive through nerve gas attacks,
although there are historical references to 'deliberate obscurity' dating
back to at least 1565.90
aerial bombing campaigns in World War II, first by the Luftwaffe and
followed by very aggressive daylight raids by the 8th Air
Force and the Royal Air Force at night marked the first
deployment of what later would be known as ECM - Electronic Counter
Measures. Although radar was only in its childhood stage during this
conflict, it faltered the German 'Blitz' on England. The subsequent struggle
between the belligerents was to become known as 'the battle of the beams'.
Despite the fact that British intelligence had broken the German Enigma
code, they allowed the mass destruction of Coventry by raiders equipped
with the 'Knickebein System' in 1941 in order to keep the Germans unaware of this
In July 1943 the Royal Air Force
made one of its most successful sorties by deliberately seeding
the atmosphere with masses of small-aluminized paper strips, coded 'Window',
togarble German radar. That night Hamburg was flattened with great
loss of life. The Luftwaffe operated a similar system in 1944, called
Diippel, for disturbing air traffic in the vicinity of allied aerodromes
over South East England.9
The crescent-shaped white cloud on
the left is formed by massively seeding the atmosphere with aluminum
particles, thus jamming the
German radar and rendering their
defense useless, July 1943.
This development is important in
the context of this survey, because 'Chaff as it is called in
NATO-nomenclature today is still part of the ECM-defense system and there is
evidence that it is tested on a regular basis. On July 19th, 2005
'Diippel' has been used during air exercises over Germany and the
Netherlands, causing major disruption on weather radars.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition,
2009, Houghton Mifflin
The history of radar, BBC maths, science and technology, July, 14th 2003.
United Kingdom Government through IWM, public domain.
RTL, programm 'Guten Abend', Kartsen Brandt: Bundeswehr manipuliert
Wetterkarte, July, 19th
Hardcopy from the
RTL-broadcasting, with the 'Chaff clearly visible in the area of Kassel.
Meteorologists were 'not amused' at that time.
5.2.3. Period 1945-1950:
The Second World War ended with
the atomic bomb tests, during which uncountable magnetic pulses were
released in the atmosphere. As a result of this the U.S. was not only
confirmed in its role as world leader, but unlimited funding became
available for different projects, including the first weather manipulation
The project, later called Cirrus,
originated in 1947 and was led by Nobel laureate Dr. Irving
Langmuir and his protégé Dr.
Vincent Schaefer in co-operation with the U.S. Army, Navy,
Air Force and General Electric. Dr. Schaefer was the man who dropped 1,4 kg
pellets on November 13th, 1946 into a super stratus cloud near
Schenectady, New York and
snow fell. This is the first known fruitful attempt to induce precipitation
from a cloud.
To test his theories Schaeffer
created a 'cold box' in a laboratory to recreate the same conditions.
Breathing into the box produced a tiny cloud of super cooled water droplets,
just as in real conditions in the upper part of a cloud. Furthermore
Schaeffer discovered that
the addition of any substance with a temperature below -40°C
would cause million of ice
crystals to form in the cloud.
actual cloud seeding the U.S. Signal Corps became involved in February 1947
and it earned
the name Project Cirrus. 37 experimental flights took place in the first
did not always produce the expected results, mainly due to the inherent
variability of the
weather. Modification of tropical typhoon through dispersion of 80 lbs dry
ice in 1947 ended with major flooding in the Savannah area with damage
totaling $20 million as a result
of a sudden course change.95 Officially
it was classified as an act of God.
After this the lawyers of General
Electric told Dr. Langmuir not to discuss the hurricane case until the
statute of limitations ran out for prosecution. Fear for a legal casenecessitated
further operation out of public eyes and the project was closed in 1950 due to
a shift in government with different priorities. In 1958 three nuclear bombs
weredetonated in the Van Allen
radiation belt (protective zone of charged particles trapped in the
Earth's magnetic field starting around 2000 miles altitude), starting to
deplete the ozone layer with each further attempt by the United States, the
former USSR and
Reilly C, Staff Historian, Rain men: scientists here tried to change the
weather, Monmouth Message,
February 20th 2009, U.S.A.
Idem as footnote 94.
France. This information will
be of major importance in the next chapter. Nevertheless project Cirrus is
the first confirmed cloud seeding program in history. The full outline of
this program can be found in appendix 8.
5.2.4. Start of operation Storm
Fury (1962) and Popeye (1967):
'Storm Fury' continued on the knowledge obtained during operation Cirrus,
with its main
objective to weaken tropical cyclones by flying aircraft into them and
seeding with silver
iodide.97 The partners
were the U.S. Department of Commerce and the U.S. Navy. The
hypothesis was that the silver iodide would cause super cooled water in the
storm to freeze and subsequently disrupt the inner structure of the
hurricane. Although this hypothesis proved to be incorrect the cloud seeding
project continued officially until 1983 with the last experimental flight in
The hypothesis of operation Storm
Fury was incorrect because tropical cyclones seem not to contain that much
super cooled water to make cloud seeding effective. Additionally unseeded
hurricanes often undergo the same structural changes as the 'treated' ones.98
The crew enlisted in Operation vStormfury'
in 1963. Note the special belly of the Douglas DC6-B on the background for
cloud seeding purposes.
Academy of Sciences, Long time effects of multiple nuclear weapon
detonation, 1975, pages
H. E., D. P. Jorgensen, R. A. Black, and S. L. Rosenthal, 1985: Project
Scientific Chronicle, 1962-1983, Bull. Amer. Meteor.
Oceanic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division,
Operation Storm Fury
In the wake of operation Storm
Fury there was also a less known military application during the Vietnam
War. From March 1967 until July 1972 the U.S. military cloud seeded 47.409
units of silver iodide to extend the monsoon over North Vietnam and
especially in the vicinity of the Ho Chi Min trail. The objectives of this
operation, called Popeye, was to deny
the enemy the use of roads by softening road surfaces, causing landslides,
washing out river
crossings and to maintain saturated soil conditions beyond normal time span.
resulted in the targeted areas seeing an extension of the monsoon by an
average of 30 to 45 days.99 The
full transcription of a U.S. senate hearing about weather modification
in S.E. Asia is included in appendix 9.
Operation Popeye proves that
weather modification explicitly forms part of the U.S. weapon portfolio
('make mud, not war'), shining new light on the Advisory Committee on
Weather Control, which was created in 1953 under direct Federal Government
control with Captain H.W. Orville as chairman. Its mission was to study
weather-making activities with
emphasis on rain making to 'benefit water supplies and land utilization'100 Despite
the mixed results obtained
during operation Storm Fury and Popeye it gave way to a very profitable but
controversial business with companies offering local weather modification
for agricultural purposes through hail cannons and cloud seeding by small
aircraft. The successful
outcome of such an operation is at least to say doubtful.
Cessna 210 with a device for cloud
seeding with silver iodide.
Cloud seeding aims to make more snow and rain states
Cloud seeding improves the precipitation efficiency of niodiflcatio
2 Silver iodide is
shaped like an ice
crystal and attracts
watervaporwithin • • •
to fafl as snow. In warm weather
the snow melts and
hits the ground as rain.
4 Once seeded, it can take 15 co 30 minutes for snow crystals to
of the cloud, seeding must takeplace
upwind of the target area
by introducing artificial ice-forming substances, such
as silver iodide, wearher modification programs are
operating in 11 western states.
Source: Wejdior Modtflctflofl AuocUnon
Nowadays there are still several
states in the U.S. running cloud seeding programs.
Top secret hearing held on March 20,1974 made public on May 19,1974 weather
SEASIA rain making
Substancially increased research programs needed in meteorology to benefit
water supplies and
land utilization, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chimistry, Page 1192,
Chernobyl disaster in 1986 major A. Grusin described how the Soviet air
rain clouds to protect Moscow from radioactive fall out. Sadly the
population in Belarus was exposed to radiation doses 20 to 30 times higher
than normal, causing intense
radiation poisoning in children.101 The
article is included in appendix 10.
Silver iodide is still used on a
large scale by the Russian and the Chinese air force for generation of clear
skies during military parades or major sports events, such as the Olympic
games.102 In 2009 the
mayor of Moscow was planning to spend several million Dollars
to pay the Russian Air Force and spray a fine mist of particulate matter
(cement dust in 2007, silver iodide or new chemicals) in the clouds. The
ideas of operation Cirrus and
Storm Fury still stand: seeding the clouds would increase moisture and thus
force the clouds to
release their precipitation before they reached the capital - 'thus saving
the city millions in snow removal costs'.103
Preliminary tests revealed strange hole punched clouds over Moscow that
worried its inhabitants.
This strange cloud over Moscow in
November 2009 is attributed to a cloud seeding test.
Unfortunately the 'experiment'
proved to be a huge failure with 417.000 cubic meters snow
shoveled between February 21s1 and
22nd 2010 - breaking
the record of 1966.104 It has
not been determined if there is any correlation between the harsh winter
conditions in Moscow or
the rest of Europe in this period and any cloud seeding initiatives.
However, it is clear that
extensive hard evidence exists of weather manipulation for both civil and
military purposes on micro- and macro scale since the Eisenhower administration,
with ever changing seeding material ranging from dry ice over silver iodide
to cement and particulate matter. However one must bear in mind that
mechanical cloud seeding
is quite expensive and it was a matter of time before alternative and more
efficient ways of manipulation of the atmosphere were to be developed.
R., How we made the Chernobyl rain, Daily telegraph, April 22nd 2007.
)., China may attempt to alter weather for Olympics, Meteorology news, July
J., Moscow testing cloud seeding; promises winter without snow, Meteorology
October, 19th 2009.
Moskou onder een dik pak sneeuw, De telegraaf,
22 Februari 2010.
5.2.5. U.S. and Soviet 'proof of concept' ELF-projects (1975 to 1995):
of concept' project is one where advanced research experiments are designed
usually on a smaller scale, specific applications of research. These tests
allow researchers to extrapolate results, which can be used to engineer full
size technology systems. Within the scope of this survey a 'proof of
concept' project for weather modification
is the last step before full weapon system development (military
geo-engineering around the planet (civil and military applications).
After the American debacle in
Vietnam the two opposing blocks shifted to a more silent cold war and this
despite extensive strategic arms limitations talks (SALT). Instead of
dropping masses of silver iodide in the atmosphere and battering the
troposphere with atomic tests -already totaling 400 kilotons at that time -
a subtle battle of the frequencies between U.S. and opposing Soviet forces
made its headway. Its ultimate target: replacing thermonuclear weapons by 'non lethal'
electro pulses through manipulation of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere.105
Development of such devices
started quite a long time ago. Already in 1966 Anthony Ferraro
at the Penn State University performed the first military funded experiments
with a 500kW ionosphere heater.106A high-power transmitter would
heat a region of the lower ionosphere
while a weaker transmitter was pulsing. Thus the experimenters could study
wave interaction within that specific layer of earth's atmosphere. They had
to shut down the project some years later because there was an unacceptable
interference with air traffic control and other types of radio
communication. As a result of this, military decision makers decided that
all future projects would be located in remote places on the globe.
Dr. R. Helliwell and J. Katsufrakis of the Stanford University's Radio
showed that a very low frequency radio wave (VLF) could vibrate the
magnetosphere (The region above
the ionosphere in which the magnetic field of the earth
has a dominant control over the motions of gas and fast charged particles),
thus confirming the
research work of Anthony Ferraro.
Exact one year later in 1975 the
U.S. Navy launched an ELF-facility (Extreme Low Frequency) capable to
radio-contact deep running Polaris or Poseidon ICBM missile carrying
submarines in case of extreme national disaster. This operation, with code
name Project Sanguine, consisted of the development of a communication
network in the 45 to 75
Hz frequency range plus a grid of deeply buried cables covering 1250 square
miles. In this system,
sited in specially selected rock and ground formations, the earth acts as a
conductor, with the rock formations forcing the radio waves outward into the
of inward toward the earth's core. 08 The
saturation of the ionosphere forces some of
these ELF signals underwater to a considerable depth, enabling submerged
submarines to receive and react to messages from a distance of over 2500
miles even if normal communication channels should be destroyed in a
preemptive attack. A similar system, called ZEVS with its transmitter
located near Murmansk, is still in use in Russian Navy.109
patent 4,686, 605 - issued August 11th 1987 to Bernard J. Eastlund and
assigned to APTI inc., Method and appartus for altering a region in the
Earth's atmosphere, Ionosphere and/or Magnetosphere.
Ferraro A.J., Reflections on 40+ years of ionospheric research,
Communication & Space Science
Laboratory, Penn State University, United States
Stanford University VLF group website http://www.star.stanford.edu/people/rah.html
D. And Wallace I., Major engineering events in history: Project Sanguine
i°9 Jacobsen T., ZEVS,
the Russian 82 Hz ELF transmitter, Norway.
transmission recorded in Italia by Renato Romero
on the 8th of December 2000, at 08:40 UTC. The "message waiting" signal,
81.6 Hz low for 8 minutes, 82.7 Hz high for 4 minutes is easily detected in
the spectrogram. After the 16 minutes long message sequence of the
transmission is again the carrier at 82 Hz. Because of the long exposure are
the Schumann resonance bands easily visible at the bottom of the
However in the
field of ELF-transmitters the Soviets proved to be far superior to the
Americans at that date with significant amount of manpower and resources
attributed for the development of a fully operational ionospheric heater in
Zelanogradskaya near Moscow, which was completed in 1981. There are reports
that the device was not only used for ionosphere study and modeling, but
also for pulsing of ELF-waves on a 10 Hz frequency in the form of a
'woodpecker signal' -just above the natural Schumann resonance frequency of
the earth of 7.83 Hz - in order to disturb communication and to resonate
with neurons of human brains at key brainwave rhythms.110 The
existence of a U.S. radio frequency radiometry handbook, which contains
mathematics for calculation of the dosages of radio frequency radiation
necessary to cause changes in animals and humans, is a silent witness of the
battle of the frequencies between the United States and the former Soviet
Union.111 After the
collapse of the U.S.S.R. many projects were abandoned and the Americans took
the lead in the research. Today 10 known Ionosphere heaters or research
facilities are operative around the globe (4 U.S. staffed, 1 in Norway
operated by the German Max Planck Institute since 1991 and 5 Russian).
study station' at Zmiev, currently in the Ukraine, has been abandoned after
the demise of the Soviet Union.112
Dr. Begich J & Manning J., Angels don't play this HAARP, advances in Tesla
technology, page 17,
Earthpulse press, Anchorage, ninth printing, 2007.
Radio frequency radiation dosimetry handbook, U.S. Air Force School of
Aerospace medicine, Brooks
Air Force Base, October 1986.
Picture by courtesy of the Pravda, http://english.pravda.ru/ img/idb/photo/5-67.jpg
of ELF-transmitters either for civil or military purposes is particular
important in the
scope of this survey, because alteration or manipulation of the ionosphere
at a specific place inevitably
alters the weather below. When transmitting in the VLF or ELF frequency
range the ionosphere is sliced about in the same way of a space shuttle
entering or leaving the atmosphere, leaving an incision at the point of
impact. Due to the nature
of propagation of VLF and ELF-waves these signals cause streams of particles
to rain down beyond the horizon far from the transmitter and in the
outermost regions of the atmosphere with very little loss of signal,
altering the motion of free electrons and causing electronic
rain that influence weather patterns.1 This opens a window
towards peaceful applications
but also military endeavors, as been demonstrated during the Vietnam
conflict with operation Popeye.
In that respect it is worth to
mention that the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Navy and the Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency, together with an array of civil partners, have
established HAARP in 1995 (test runs), the High Frequency Active Auroral
Research Program. While the military provide technical expertise,
and evaluation of the program its civil partners are partly responsible for the
funding. According to official sources HAARP is a scientific endeavor aimed
at studying the properties and behavior of the ionosphere by means of high
power HF-transmitters aiming to manipulate the Aurora Borealis (Northern
light), with particular emphasis on being able to understand and use it to
enhance communications and surveillance systems for both civilian and
HAARP-antenna array at Anchorage, Alaska
differences between the Russian or European stations and HAARP are as follows:
fully operational somewhere beyond 2010 the HAARP team will operate an ionosphere
heater with an effective ERP well above 1 Giga Watt, in short the most
powerful facility in the world.116That would actually allow a
concentration of one Watt
per cubic centimeter, where its Russian counterparts are only able to
millionth of one Watt.
VLF, getting particles excited, Science News, Society for science and the
Public, December 1982,
Official HAARP website, http://www.haarp.alaska.edu/haarp/factSheet.html
us HAARP Cam, recorded on February, 7th 2010, official HAARP
HAARP, Joint Program Plans and Activities, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory,
Navy Office of Naval
Research, February 1990.
Amendment January 1987 to the original patent application of Bernard
Eastlund for the
subsequently issued U.S. patent number 4,686,605.
Due to its high concentration of
power HAARP can stab the ionosphere with a more
focused beam, while the others spread it over an increasingly large area as the
energy moves away from the transmitter.
The safety limits for VLF-and
ELF-waves in the HAARP final environmental impact
statement were set a 1000 times higher than the level considered safe in the
former Soviet Union.118
result of these developments in Alaska deputies held a heated discussion
about HAARP in the Russian parliament, the Duma, in the year 2002. They even
drew up an appeal
to the President Putin and the UN. They demanded to set up an international
commission for the investigation of the experiments conducted in Alaska,
been waved by the U.S. authorities, as HAARP is a 'pure scientific project'.
Nevertheless, bearing in mind the outcome of project Sanguine and when
looking closer at the mission statement of HAARP it is obvious that the
system is more than a scientific project
with possible leads for the D.O.D. (U.S. Department of Defense). It is
actually a full-blown
operational platform that greatly improves the performance of the U.S.
military C3 system
(Communications, Control and Command), combining all existing weapon systems
in one device and making all other friendly or enemy systems obsolete.1 ° In
Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 1995' it is even stated that the
transmitter in Alaska, besides providing a world class research facility for
ionospheric studies, could allow earth-penetrating tomography over de northern
the detection and exact location of tunnels and shelters.121
However, during communication with
the public U.S. official sources have always denied that HAARP is a military
system and on their official website nothing points in this direction.
Moreover the military firmly contest that there is any link between HAARP
and patent 4,686,605, a theory that is brought forward by Jean Manning and
Dr. Nick Begich.122 This
patent, which has been deposed by Bernard J. Eastlund on behalf of APTI Inc. (ARCO Power
Technologies Inc.), contains 15 claims, ranging from a method to alter at
least one region above the earth's surface with electromagnetic radiation
over methods of
providing artificial particles in the atmosphere excitation of electron
cyclotron resonance.123 If
such a device would exist man made earthquakes would be within reach by
manipulating the Schumann frequency through resonance.
By the matter of fact many bits
and pieces of evidence do link the N°4,686,605 patent. First of all APTI, a
small company holding an array of patents relating to weather modification
and the initial HAARP contractor, was bought out to E-systems in June 1994124 only
to be bought out again in April 1995 by Raytheon Corporation - one of the main
suppliers and biggest contractors in the U.S. Aerospace and defense
industry.125 A fact
not to neglect Is that Raytheon was also an initial and losing bidder for
the HAARP project and the buy out some years later rewarded them instantly
with the Eastlundtechnology plus the
contract.1 6 So
it is pointless to argument that HAARP is civil
Col. David J. Dean USAF, Low Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology, Air
Center for Aerospace doctrine, Research and Education, Maxwell Air
Force Base, June 1986.
USA and Russia supposedly develop secret meteorological weapons, Pravda,
September 30th 2005.
Idem as footnote 118.
National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 1995,103rd congress,
2nd session, Report
Calendar 459, Report to accompany S.2182, Committee on Armed Services United
States Senate, June
Dr. Begich J & Manning J., Angels don't play this HAARP, advances in Tesla
technology, page 17,
Earthpulse press, Anchorage, ninth printing, 2007.
i*s U.S. patent 4,686, 605 - issued August 11th 1987 to Bernard J. Eastlund
and assigned to APTI inc., Method and appartus for altering a region in the
Earth's atmosphere, Ionosphere and/or Magnetosphere, claims 1, 2 and 11. i2*
The New York Times, E-Systems buys ARCO Power
Technologies", June 30th, 1994.
The Wall Street Journal, Raytheon to acquire E-systems for $64 a share, Page
1, April 3rd 1995.
Idem as footnote 122.
technology: it is about the same
as telling that the facility that engineered the first atomic bomb in1945
was a pure scientific and peaceful project. Secondly a U.S. Air Force
document that unexpectedly emerged in a public library explicitly states
that it is the intention
to have HAARP transmitting at 100 billions of Watts effective energy and
that 'we have never seen anything like this on earth'.127 Last
but not least claim 15 of the N°4,686,605
patent describes a method of generation of electromagnetic radiation within the
magnetic latitudes that encompass Alaska, exactly the same place where the
HAARP facility is built.
This last bit closes the loop between APTI, Raytheon and the real purpose of
HAARP. The full description of patent 4,686,605 is included in appendix 11.
Of course HAARP does also open a
window towards civil applications, such as replenishing of ozone holes and
binding of excess C02 in
the lower atmosphere as part of a solution for global climate change but
also 'for owning the weather' and remodeling the ionosphere because the
current layer is too unstable for the outcome of strategic military
operations. This point of view is clearly underwritten by the Russian
environmental monitor Valéry Stasenko
who states that HAARP is a very serious issue and that perturbations in the
magnetosphere and ionosphere can really impact climate, even on a global
scale.128 Refer to
appendix 12 for the full article from the Russian Pravda.
explained at the beginning of this paragraph the 'war of the frequencies'
between the Americans
and the Russians continued well beyond the cold war and well into the 21st century.
In 2005 the American meteorologist Scott Stevens accused Russian military
specialists for the destruction of New Orleans by hurricane Katrina,
although it is questionable
if even high power devices as HAARP are capable to unleash such power.
However, what to think about the out print of the HAARP induction
magnetometer, which detects temporal variation of the geomagnetic field
(flux), for the period between 10 and 12
January 2010? On Tuesday January 12th at
16.53 local time (21.53 UTC) Haiti was devastated by an Earth Quake. The
official readings of the magnetometer were as follows:129
Magnetometer Gakona, AK
Spectral Density: Bx (mag north)
08:00 12:00 16:00
10 January 2010
A U.S. Air Force document, Technical
Memorandum #195,presentations from the HAARP workshop on
ionospheric heating diagnostics, issued
October 1991, page 185, Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom AFB.
USA and Russia supposedly develop secret meteorological weapons, Pravda,
September 30th 2005.
Magnetometer Gakona, AK
Density: Bx (mag north)
08:00 12:00 16:00
11 January 2010
Magnetometer Gakona, AK
Spectral Density: Bx (mag north)
Í :U: "
i:00 12:00 16:00
12 January 2010
Variations in magnetic flux were extreme during the 24-hours preceding the
earthquake, acting as a precursor of what was going to happen somewhere
around the globe in the next
hours. It is unknown if the U.S. military were fully proficient in decoding
this information at that time in order to initiate an evacuation, whether
information has deliberately been held for national interests or even worse.
Whatsoever American, Russian or European official sources state it is
crystal clear that weather
modification at the beginning of the 21st century
is not a hoax nor a 'conspiracy theory'
but an iron truth. It is undeniable that the United States is on top of
research in this field and is deliberately withholding vital information on
weather modification and possible infringement of international laws of
sovereignty, not only to allied or neutral states but also towards their own
5.2.6. the year 1996 - Weather
as a force multiplier: owning the weather in 2025:
of this paragraph is also the title of a research paper, presented by Col
Tamzy J. House
and his team to the U.S. Air Force on June 17th 1996.
It forms part of a group of studies
labeled '2025', designed to comply with a directive from the chief of Staff
of the Air Force to
examine the "concepts, capabilities and technologies the United States will require
to remain the dominant air and space force in future".130 As
one might think it is not
an isolated publication by some eager and combative military. On the
contrary there are many more projects in this area of interest, such as the
research paper Alternate futures for 2025: security planning to avoid
surprises' that even introduces the concept of a
global "Pax Americana".131 When
looking closer at the individual research papers the only relevant
conclusion is that extensive human resources are allocated to U.S. strategic planning
and all research papers are closely interconnected and fit into a global
The research document 'owning the
weather in 2025', combines all the previously obtained
knowledge in the field of weather control and possible developments into the following
operational capabilities matrix:132
DEGRADE ENEMY FORCES
ENHANCE FRIENDLY FORCES
Flooding of lines of communicationReduce
recce effectiveness Decrease comfort level / morale
Maintain / improve lines of communicationMaintain
visibility Maintain comfort / morale
Choose battle space
Deny fresh water / inducing drought
Fog and cloud
Disrupt Communications /
radar Disable / destroy space assets
reliability Intercept enemy transmissions Revitalize space assets
Fog and cloud removal
Increase vulnerability to
Fog and cloud removal
operations Enhance recce effectiveness
Detect hostile weather
Defend against enemy
This matrix is of particular
interest, because it does not only include known weather manipulation
instruments such as cloud seeding through silver iodide as used in the
Vietnam conflict and modeling of the ionosphere through HAARP ('space
weather'), but also
precipitation and storm control by means of cloud or contrail generation.
This option will be
discussed in the next chapter.
Col T.M. House and team, Weather as a force multiplier, a research paper
presented to Air Force
2025, page ii, Department of Defense School, August 1996.
131 Col J.A.
Engelbrecht, Jr., PhD and team, a research paper presented to Air Force
2025, page 107,
Department of Defense School, April 1996.
Refer to footnote 130, page vii.
This research document is very
clear and provides even the most skeptic climatologist who denies global
weather manipulation by the U.S. and its allies an insight in what to expect
in the 21st century:
'Current demographic, economic and environmental trends will create global
stresses that provide the impetus
necessarv for many countries
or groups to turn weather
modification ability into capability. In the United States weather
modification will likely become part of national security policy with both
domestic and international applications. Our government will pursue such a
policy, depending on its interests, at various
research paper does however not specify if current environmental and
economic crises are deliberately triggered or created in order to achieve
the goals as set in the
directive of the U.S. Chief of Staff.
The authors of the research papers
explicitly admit that the U.S. forces possess a high capability for fog and
cloud modification as well as an average capability for space weather
modification, which reflects the fact that HAARP is not operating at full capacity.134 In
that respect they have established a core competence road map in order to
obtain overall artificial weather control in the year 2025. As water sources
become scarcer 'in volatile parts of the world' the importance of
precipitation modification for economic
as well as defense purposes is likely to increase.1 5 It
is a fact that water will become the most valuable commodity in the next
decades and control of existing water supplies
automatically generates the next world power.
On top of
this the research paper also includes a system development road map to
weather modification in 2025 with a very precise time line. It includes the
Introduction of artificial ionospheric mirrors around the year 2000 with a
upraise of such operations as from 2008. One can extrapolate that the HAARP
system will be fully operational after 2015.
Use of chemicals for atmospheric
seeding as from the year 2000 in order to obtain Weather Force Support in
2015 and fully controllable virtual weather by 2025. The aerospace delivery
vehicles' graphic and the graph for the use of chemicals are identical,
which indicates a huge increase of spraying actions. It is clear that the
sum of all U.S. and NATO military assets are not sufficient to achieve the
desired targets and civil aviation has to be included in order to achieve
Introduction of smart clouds through nanotechnology around the year 2004
exponential increase of this application after 2010. The same applies to the
use of 'directed energy' - a euphemism for ionospheric heating.
curious application is the introduction of 'Carbon Black Dust' (CBD) as from
the year 2005 - a technology that has to be developed by the DOD according
to the document.
Although this unclassified
research paper contains a disclaimer that it is a fictional representation
of future scenarios and the viewpoints do not reflect the official policy of the
U.S. Air Force, DOD or U.S. government its mere existence highlights the
ambition of the military
in the field of weather control. As has been adequately illustrated the
technology for weather manipulation is already in place and the allocation
of human resources to such projects is only possible after prior permission
by the DOD, the intelligence services such as the NSA and finally senior
decision makers in the U.S. government itself.
not least there exists also a civil counterpart of the '2025 project', which
is called the Weather Modification Association (WMA). This organization also
publishes annually or
more frequently the journal of weather modification. Its mission goals is to
Idem as footnote 130
Idem as footnote 130, page 32
Idem as footnote 130, page 34
Idem as footnote 130
persons, political entities and
other organizations to make informed decisions about the application
of weather modification technologies, to provide adequate water supplies and
to reduce natural weather hazards.137 Although
designed for beneficial use the mission statement
has a strong resemblance with the operational capabilities matrix on the
'enhance friendly forces' side of the military '2025' project.
excerpt of the research paper, which includes the front page, the
disclaimer, the table of
contents and the different graphics, is included in appendix 13.
5.2.7. The bare necessity of
geo-engineering through cloud generation for survival of the planet (1996 -
first decade of the 21st century
a new development took place on planet Earth: climate
is gradually changing and whole eco systems
are endangered as a result of human activity. The former secretary-general
of the United Nations, Koffi Annan, put it crystal clear in the introduction
section of the impressive GE04-document released by the IPCC in 2007:
'Imagine a world in which environmental change threatens people's health,
physical security, material needs and social cohesion. This is a world beset
by increasingly intense and frequent storms, and by rising sea levels. Some
people experience extensive flooding, while others endure intense droughts.
Species extension occurs at rates never before witnessed. Safe water is
increasingly limited, hindering economic activity. Land degradation
endangers the lives of millions of people. This is the world today.'138 In
a short period of time 'global warming' came on top of many political
Between 2003 and the outbreak of
the credit crunch in 2008 'global warming',
dwindling natural resources and
the safeguard of the planet in general proved to be a
very popular media topic, partly
as a result of the release of the movie xan
truth' by AI Gore
- who would later become the first billionaire in cap & trade.
Although 'global warming' remains
a very controversial subject after the eruption of 'climate
gate' in 2009 and 'climate change' would be a much more appropriate
description of this
phenomenon P.M. Della-Marta and his team of Meteoswiss proved through an analysis
of 54 homogenised daily maximum temperature series in 15 European countries
Weather Modification Association website,
GE04, United Nations Environment Program, Introduction section, 2007.
summer heat waves have doubled since 1880, both in number of hot days as the
the heatwaves.139 His
research work confirms data obtained in earlier research papers,
such as the Press Therm Climate document, prepared on presidential order
extreme heatwave of 2003 in France that resulted in 14,947 excess
causalities of whom
2200 people died in one single day - August 12th 2003.140 Even
when putting the effects
of 'climate gate' into account one can logically assume that our quality of
life is in great danger and immediate action is needed to safeguard the
A lot of mitigation scenarios were
developed to counter 'global warming', such as restriction of the various
greenhouse gasses through regulation and the creation of the profitable cap
& trade business, making pollution one of the business fields with the
highest return on investment. As from 2001 more exotic scenarios were
introduced in the IPCC
assessment reports such as iron fertilization in oceans, chemical buffering
and 'geo engineering' -
large size and deliberately manipulation of Earth environment through its energy
balance and reflection of additional incoming solar radiation back into
However geo-engineering scenarios
for reduction of global warming on a large scale already
appear in much older documents, such as U.S. patent 5,003,186 of March 26th 1991,
held by Hughes Aircraft Company. It contains 18 claims to reduce global
warming through stratospheric seeding with Aluminum Oxide (claim 3 and 12),
Thorium Oxide (claim
4 and 13) and refractory Welsbach material for reflection of incoming solar
radiation (claims 7 and
10) with a particle size of 10 to 100 Microns (claims 6 and 16) and dispersed
at altitudes between 7 to 13 kilometers (claims 5 and 14).142 Refer
to appendix 14 for the
full outline of patent 5,003,186.
government sources systematically deny the existence of operational
schemes in order to cut 'global warming', but one must bear in mind that the
proposed scenario by the IPCC in 2001 is identical to the claims contained
in the Welsbach
patent. Moreover Hughes Aircraft Company has been acquired by Raytheon in 1997,
which is exact the same company that acquired E-systems and the HAARP
The exact method of spraying of
the mix that comprises one of more of the oxides of metals
(claims 1 and 11) is not firmly specified in patent 5,003,186, although one
possible method of
delivery is briefly described in the section 'background of the invention':
'one proposed solution to the problem of global warming involves the seeding
of the atmosphere with metallic particles. One
technique proposed to seed the metallic particles was to add the tiny
particles to the fuel of jet airlines, so that the tiny particles would be
emitted from the jet engine while the airline was as it cruising altitude. While
this method would increase the reflection of visible light incident from
space, the metallic particles would trap the long wavelength blackbody
radiation released from the earth. This could result in the net increase in
global warming. It is therefore an object of the present invention to
provide a method for reduction in global warming due to the greenhouse
effect which permits heat to escape through the atmosphere.'144
Doubled length of Western European Summer Heat Waves since 1880,
Della-Marta, P.M., M. R.
Haylock, J. Lutherbach, and H. Wanner 2007, Journal of Geophysical research,
volume 112, D15103,
doi:10.1029/2007JD008510 - published August, 3rd 2007, Federal Office of
Climatology Meteoswiss, Zurich
Press Therm Climat,142:25-30. Data for Dijon-Longvic Airbase, Centre Météorologique
Départemental de la Côte d'Or, Dijon, 2005.
IPCC Third Assessment Report, Climate Change 2001,
working group III: mitigation, section 4.7
Biological uptake in oceans and freshwater reservoirs, and geo-engineering,
U.S. patent 5,003,186, Stratospheric Welsbach seeding for reduction of
global warming, March 26th
Raytheon Company and Hughes Electronic Defense Business (Hughes Aircraft) to
$21 billion enterprise - combination creates a world leader in defense
electronics, Raytheon press
release, Raytheon Company Corporate Communication, New York, January 16th,
Idem as footnote 142, page 1.
However a recent research paper by
David L. Mitchell and William Finnegan dated October
30th 2009 shines a new
light on atmospheric seeding by aircraft, with two possible methods
The seeding material, comprised of
a pressed composite of reagent Bismuth metal,
Aluminum and Gilsonite (natural Hydrocarbon) could be either dissolved or suspended
in the jet fuel of commercial airliners and later burned with the fuel to
create seeding aerosol.
Alternatively the mix could be
directly injected into the hot engine exhaust, which should
vaporize the seeding material, allowing it to condense as aerosol in the jet contrail.
In this respect it is noteworthy that the Secretary of the U.S. navy is in possession
of patent 3,899,144, dated August 12th 1975,
claiming the invention of specific
contrail generation apparatus for producing a powder contrail having maximum
radiation scattering ability for a given weight material.146 The
seeding material in this
document again consists of 85% metallic particles and 15% colloidal Silica
and Silica gel in order to produce a stable contrail that has a residence
period of 1 up to 2 weeks as the Mitchell and Finnegan surveyclaims.147 Refer
to appendix 15 for the full text of patent 3,899,144.
As discussed in the case study in
paragraph 3.3.2 the KC135 and possible the AWACS aircraft are already
equipped with pods to enable spraying operations. The question arises
if the higher gas emission ratios than those in civil aviation are not part
of this type of delivery
mechanism for geo-engineering.
Thus basically the first method
with direct injection through jet fuel is primarily designed for civil
aviation, since delivery of the mixture through pods would involve direct co
operation of airline staff, management, crews, maintenance personnel and
generally attract media attention. This is also the basic argument that is
being used by websites that
deny the existence of 'chemtrails', such as 'contrail science'.148 This
is very true, since the
very nature of such an operation would involve intense co-operation at all
levels. However, the Dutch Airport Portal website, supposed to be a platform
for professional pilots, contains a lot of postings referring to spraying
schemes with product 'X-432' (a Barium derívate).149 It
contains even excerpts from a company's operating manual and suggestions
that KLM, the
national Dutch carrier, is a partner in the spraying program. Some consider
this portal as a hoax, but one can only wonder why so much energy is used to
generate such 'rubbish' that has 'no purpose'. Furthermore the nomenclature
is similar to standard operating procedures (SOP) and airplane checklists as
used in commercial aviation. Refer to appendix 16 for a printout of some of
the postings on this website.
K /\ ------------------ —--------------
..■■■ IUUMU----- .~--------------
I Taking into account that Barytine
used as a tracer for measurement of sea currents as part of
global climate modeli
into account that Barytine C14 is
_ _ . r ,............................ ,
D.L. & Finnegan W., Modification of Cirrus clouds to reduce global warming,
Institute, Reno, USA, October 30th 2009.
i« U.S. patent 3,899,144, Powder Contrail Generation, August 12th 1975.
Idem as footnote 145.
Contrail science, chemtrail plausibility study, http://contrailscience.com/chemtrail-plausibility-
• / i»
Climatique Globale, PNEDC,
page 60, Institut National des Sciences de
National de la
Recherche Scientifique. 2005.
no surprise why such large quantities are ordered. Refer to appendix 17 for different
screenshots of the order confirmation.
On top of this comes a map with
spraying schemes in Europe, which has been released by Kevin Martin, a
meteorologist working for the Ontario Weather Service in 2008. Later on
such maps displaying intended spraying schemes for Europe, Australia and the
United States appeared on
the Southern California Authority website. Currently this section of the
website has been shut down since January 6th 2010
for unknown reasons.
This map shows the European
spraying scheme for June 6th 2008.152
The spraying schemes seem to be organized in a logical pattern so that the
whole of Europe is covered in a 3-day period:
courtesy of Kevin Martin, meteorologist.
The last maps with spraying
schemes on the Southern California Authority website, January 6th 2010.153
The existence of such documents
highlights the discrete but heavy involvement of governments
at top level in climate control projects, which are hidden for the public
for the obvious reason
that the actual state of the planet is much worse than admitted through
media channels. Indeed, scientists are seeking to counter with an ever
louder sounding voice of climate engineering the scenario of a 3°C-increase
in surface temperature, coupled with a more than doubled C02 output
by the year 2100 - data that has been transmitted
to the IPCC in 2005.154 According
to Mark Lynas, author of the book 'six degrees',
the critical mass to induce cataclysms on planet Earth is a temperature
increase of 2.5°C. Once
beyond this point very volatile and unstable weather conditions on a global
scale are expected, triggering unseen social unrest and martial law, chronic
shortages of water and food and widespread destruction - especially in low
lying areas. This is exact the type of scenarios that various governments
are trying to prevent by means
of geo-engineering though production of artificial Cirrus clouds in order to
keep the temperature
increase within limits, thus enabling continuation of business on the planet
A press statement, released on
September 4 2009 by 5 top economists including 3 Nobel
laureates just before the opening of the later (deliberately) torpedoed
Copenhagen top climate
summit, in which climate engineering is considered as the 'most cheap and
Idem as footnote 151, page 63.
Lynas Mark, Zes graden, onze toekomst
op een warmere planeet, pages 129-193, Uitgeverij Jan Van
Arkel, Utrecht, 2008.
response' to global warming, confirms this point of view.156 Stratospheric
receives a rating 'very good' in the list of possible options. All carbon
are now at the political negotiation tables, are considered as poor and
useless for the safeguard
of the planet - although they are a pretty good business. The full press
statement is included in appendix 18.
At the time of public release of
this research paper in May 2010 our investigation team comes to the
conclusion that climate control programs, controlled by the military but
governments are silently implemented in order to avoid the worst case
scenarios they obviously do not want. The two basic instruments are
temperature control through generation of artificial clouds and manipulation
of the ionosphere through ionosphere heaters. Both remain basically military
combat systems with the option to go into the offensive if deemed necessary.
However since several ionospheric heaters are installed on various places
around the globe one can assume that there is wide cooperation
between governments in order to reach the climate targets by 2025:
controlling the weather
and thus the planet.
Last but not least one can ask why
staff of the university of East Anglia has deliberately manipulated climate
data for the sake of the IPCC? Accidentally or not the beginning of the
falsification of data series starts at the beginning of atmospheric seeding
and the operational cycle of HAARP... It is also an interesting path to
investigate if 'Climate Gate' is
not an accident, but a well planned maneuver to gradually prepare the global
population for their
future on the planet.
5.3. MODUS OPERANDI FOR CLIMATE
MODELLING THROUGH MODIFICATION OF CIRRUS CLOUDS:
5.3.1. Technique of
modification of Cirrus clouds:
It has been adequately illustrated
that Cirrus clouds do have a significant impact on temperature and
precipitation on a specific spot on Earth. If one combines this knowledge
with strategic plans and scientific studies as described in previous chapter
it is only a matter of time before climate modeling through modification of
Cirrus clouds will be used on a large scale, whether for peaceful or
As explained in paragraph 4.2.2
aircraft engine emissions that develop into contrails, which form men made
Cirrus under specific conditions, posses a global warming potential.
Although they reflect incoming sunlight they also trap the long wavelength
blackbody radiation released by the Earth, thus resulting in a net increase
of global warming.157Therefore
it is imperative to develop a reliable technique that permits heat escape
through the atmosphere, taking into account the albedo characteristics of
Both U.S patents 5,003,186 for
stratospheric seeding and 3,899,144 claiming a powder contrail
generator for radiation scattering, as well as the research work of David L.
Mitchelland William Finnegan claim that global warming can be reduced
by seeding the upper atmosphere by the following combination of metallic
Top economists recommend climate engineering, Press statement, September 4th
U.S. patent 5,003,186, Stratospheric Welsbach seeding for reduction of
global warming, Background
of the invention, March 26th 1991.
U.S. patent 5,003,186,
U.S. patent 3,899,144 Powder
D. Mitchell and W. Finnegan
research paper: modification
of Cirrus clouds160
One of more oxides of
metals (not specified),particle
size 10 to 100u
median particle size 0,3u)
15% colloidal Silica (e.g. Cabot S-101 Silanox, median particle size
Silica gel (e.g. Syloid 65, average particle size 4,5u)
A pressed composite
mixture of Bismuth tri-iodide
(Bil3), potassium perchlorate
(KCI04), Aluminum (AI) and
As explained in the previous
chapter the delivery mechanism is aviation. The stratospheric Welsbach
patent suggests particle seeding by dispersal from aircraft at an altitude
on the order of 10 km, but this is within the troposphere where airliners
- except at polar latitudes.161 D.
Mitchell and W. Finnegan are even more specific about this: "with the
delivery process already existing, this geo-engineering approach may be
less expensive than other proposed approaches."162 This
implies that the mechanism for
widespread spraying of metallic particles through commercial aviation is
already in place since a considerable long time. The 'other proposed
approaches' may be the technology as claimed in patent 3,899,144, iron ocean
fertilization of 1975 or even HAARP (1991 ). Refer to appendix 19 for the
full text of this research paper.
Adding tiny metallic particles to
aviation fuel Jet A-1 or the military JP-8 or JP8+100 have a specific
purpose. They are characterized by wavelength dependent emissivity or
reflectivity, in that said materials have high emissivity in the visible and
infrared wavelength region and low emissivity in the near infrared region.
Such metals are also referred
to as Welsbach material in the 5,003,186 patent. By seeding these metals in
the upper troposphere and stratosphere the particles remain suspended for
some time in the air and provide by their nature a mechanism for converting
the blackbody radiation in the near
infrared region into radiation in the visible and infrared wavelength so
that the heat energy may be reradiated out into space, thus reducing global
warming due to the greenhouse effect.163
question if this technique is adequate for reduction of global warming one
can only state
that the primary examiner of the patent bureau only delivers U.S patents if
the inventors can sufficiently demonstrate that the invention effectively
works. Moreover secrecy
orders may be issued if they are deemed detrimental or vital to national
security. In some cases
the government can even confiscate a patent ('John Doe'). A list of military
patents, secrecy orders and John Doe's for the period 1988-2009, as well as
an example of secrecy order letter, are contained in appendix 20.
consideration is that the metal particles must remain suspended in the
a considerable long time in order to be effective. Patent 5,003,186 claims
that the particles
may remain in suspension for up to one year.164 D.
Mitchell and W. Finnegan use the same logic with a much shorter residence
time (1 up to 2 weeks) but far sufficient to
produce 'artificial' Cirrus clouds that enable climate modeling with
temperature and precipitation as instruments.
as footnote 157
patent 3,899,144, Powder Contrail Generation, August 12th 1975.
i60 Michell D.L. &
Finnegan W., Modification of Cirrus clouds to reduce global warming, Desert
Institute, Reno, USA, October 30th 2009.
as footnote 160.
as footnote 157.
as footnote 157, page 5.
An argument that is used in almost
all these publications is cost effectiveness hence atmospheric seeding
through aviation seems to be the cheapest option for geo-engineering. It
comes at no surprise that the number of complaints of civilians about persistent
Cirrus clouds and conspiracy theories such as 'chemtrails' are on the
increase. In the scope of
the extensive U.S. weather modification project through history it is clear
that Hughes Aircraft Company must have performed extensive testing before
the patent was awarded and implementation of this technology is already
finalized - cost effective, efficient on short term, with or without active
co-operation of air crews, in short 'perfect'.
5.3.2. Legal aspects of climate
modeling through aviation:
question arises about the legal aspect of these spraying actions, especially
in Europe since
it may be an infringement of the sovereignty of the airspace of different
countries. For example the Belgian airspace (FIR and UIR EBBU) consists of
the national territory, part
of the North Sea and Luxemburg.165 Although
all aircraft that emit a mixture of exhaust
gases and metallic particles legally operate in controlled airspace on a
prior approved flight plan the consideration has to be made if formation of
men made Cirrus clouds over France that drift within Belgian airspace would
present a violation of the law. However, as long the existence of the
technique of cloud generation through contrails is officially denied this is
not an issue.
In the United States things are
quite simple since it is a vast country and spraying is considered
legal according public law.16 Rather intriguing is the space
preservation act proposal of 2001, which was rejected on April 19th 2002
after an unfavorable executive comment
received from the DOD. As a result of this seeding the atmosphere through
aviation can be considered as legal in this country. The unrevised proposal
included a permanent ban on 'exotic space weapons', which included ultra low
frequency weapons, environmental & climate weapons and chemtrails - the only
existing document where this phenomenon
is explicitly mentioned.167 The
bill was re-written in less unusual language with
omission of these 'exotic weapons' before submission to the committee.
Websites that systematically deny the existence of climate manipulation
programs state that congressman and sponsor Dennis Kuchinich did not even
write the bill or read a document
written by 'UFO-enthusiasts' until too late.168However it shines
some light on the
professionalism that reigns in some government circles. A copy of the
unrevised Space Preservation Act is included in appendix 21.
programs in Russia and the People's Republic of China are legal since they
procedure for major political rallies and parades.
Some interest groups however do
put the legality of geo-engineering as a solution for global warming into
question. One of them is the ETC-group, a technology watchdog with HQ in
Canada. They warn against the rollout of geo-engineering as plan B after the
failure of the Copenhagen climate summit in 2009 and point out that Bill
Gates and Richard Branson are very keen to experiment with 'fast, cheap and
imperfect' geo-engineering technologies - 'no matter what happens to this
planet'. According to the ETC-group the very fast developing geo-engineering
lobby has no mandate and no right to manage solar radiation on behalf of
anyone.169 That is
very much true. Refer to appendix 22 for the full text of the ETC Group news
Information Publication Belgium and Luxemburg CD-rom, AIP section ENR,
issued by Belgocontrol, 2010.
Public law 95-79, title VIII, Sec. 808, July 30th 1977.
Space perservation act of 2001,107th congress 2001-2002.
planet hackers call for bottom-up governance, ETC Group news release,
February 11th, 2010.
5.3.3. Safety and health
aspects of climate modeling through aviation:
According to D. Mitchell and W.
Finnegan seeding the atmosphere with aerosols containing
oxides of metals as part of a geo-engineering project have some drawbacks:170
Increase of the rates of strategic
Higher costs of injecting sulfur
compounds into the atmosphere.
in solar radiation altering the hydrological cycle with more frequent droughts.
Change in sky color from blue to
precipitation patterns have already been covered in paragraph 4.3,
climate modeling projects through aviation should be approached in a much
more cautious way. Ozone depletion is a fact, which could effectively be
countered if HAARP was to be used for more peaceful purposes. The change of
color is probably the more frequent appearance of a milky sky, which is a
totally unacceptable prospect if geo-engineering is to be used on a global
According to official government
sources, such as the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances &
Disease Registry (ATSDR), materials such as Aluminum that is used in the
aerosol mix are always
present in virtually all food, air, water and soil and therefore exposure is usually
not harmful and there are no known carcinogenic effects.171 The
same logic applies when researching the effects of Barium.172 The
questions arises how extremely high
concentrations of Aluminum and in a lesser extend Barium, measured in the
Paris (for example PTE = Paris Tour Eiffel) in November 2008 and included in
appendix 23 should be
interpreted as there are no fixed standards to determine an alarm level for
this type of contamination.
However there is ample evidence
that aircraft engine emissions - even without the addition of an aerosol mix
- pose a threat to public health, although its effects are minimized by the
industry as a result of corporate profit, conflicts on interests and ineffective
control by government and regulating authorities.173 The
aerotoxic syndrom, which
has first been recognized in 1999, affects an increasing number of flight
crews and cabin personnel.
It is a term that encompasses the following symptoms observed by crews who
have been exposed to hydraulic fluid, engine oils or mists as a result of
the circulation of bleed air in the pressurized cabin:174
Symptoms of dysfunction in
neurological function, immediately after intense exposure, including loss of
positional awareness, vertigo and loss of consciousness. If these symptoms
occur to a pilot there is a significant aviation safety problem.
Symptoms of skin, eyes, nose and
respiratory irritation immediately after exposure. Further exposures
exacerbate the symptoms, often leading to other respiratory and
of gastrointestinal discomfort immediately after exposure. While these
recede with cessation of exposure there is a suggestion that nausea and
Michell D.L. & Finnegan W., Modification of Cirrus clouds to reduce global
warming, Desert Research
Institute, Reno, USA, October 30th 2009.
ToxFAQ for Aluminum, Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry,
ToxFAQ for Barium, Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, August
Is the aviation industry adressing the
Winder C, Fonteyn P. And Balouet J-C, Aerotoxic syndrome, a descriptive
epidemiological survey of
aircrew exposed to in-cabin contaminants., J Occup Health Safety - Australia
& New Zealand 2002,
Some symptoms of impairment of
neurophysiologic function immediately after exposure, such as headache,
dizziness, disorientation and intoxication. These symptoms
become more debilitating after time with loss of cognitive function and memory
General symptoms of exhaustion to
chronic fatigue, with suppression of the immunity
system with food intolerance, allergies and chemical sensitivities (MCS or
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity) some time after exposure.
The aircrews in this survey had
incidences of symptoms at much higher rates than population backgrounds,
suggesting that they were unhealthier than the general population. However,
since pilots and cabin crew undergo routine medical checks the level
of fitness and health in such individuals should be better than population
governments and regulating authorities have commissioned research on this subject,
but so far have not been 'able to conclusively prove a link between
contaminated cabin air and
chronic health problems'.176 The
full text of this research paper is included in appendix 24.
As the aerotoxic syndrome is a
joint result of leakage of hydraulic fuels and engine oils there is other
evidence that jet fuel itself is detrimental to health. Extensive animal
testing on monkeys, rats, mice and dogs by the U.S. air force in 1993 -
exposing them to then now obsolete JP-4 and JP-7 jet fuels showed decreased
liver weights, red blood cell fragility, depressed activity, infertility and
an increase in inflammations that sometimes resulted
in cancer and subsequent death.177 Refer
to appendix 25 for an excerpt of this survey.
There are no research papers released on the health effects of JP-8 or
JP-8+100 military jet fuels but one can assume they are identical to those
described in the 1993 paper.
research papers illustrate that aircraft engine emissions, whether combined
or not, are a concern for public health and action should be taken by the scientific
society to perform additional research on the effects of nano sized
particles on humans
and in general our eco-systems.
as footnote 174, page 336.
Idem as footnote 174.
TP76-c2 Fuels on animals, Jet fuels JP-4 and JP-7, Health effects, 1993.
6. CONCLUSIONS AND
secretary of defense may conduct tests and experiments involving the use of
chemical and biological
agents on civilian populations.
law of the United States, Law 95-79, title VIII, Sec.808, July 30th 1977.
6.1. CONCLUSIONS AND
combining the knowledge of the formation of contrails, the effects of Cirrus
clouds on climate, the historical records of weather manipulation programs,
the scientific studies on
geo-engineering through modification of Cirrus clouds, the available and
patented technology coupled with reactions of pilots on the internet one can
only come to the following conclusions:
of climate through modification of Cirrus clouds is neither a hoax nor a
conspiracy theory, but currently the best option in geo-engineering
considered by decision makers to counter global warming. The impact of
production of artificial Cirrus clouds on temperature and precipitation
patterns is supported by adequate hard scientific evidence.
ambition of the United States is to control the weather by the year 2025,
both for civil and military purposes (offensive and defensive strategies).
This research paper
contains a proven track record to support that statement.
technology to organize spraying actions on a global scale is widely
civil and military aviation is used for that purpose. The mix, containing
oxides of metals and chemical components, can either be dispersed through
special designed pods or directly incorporated into the jet fuel. This
research paper is well documented in this respect.
the patents are owned by the main defense contractor for the U.S. armed
forces (Raytheon) or the U.S. department of defense itself and given the
it is obvious that current climate manipulation programs are organized and directed
by the United States government.
spraying actions in Europe are only possible with prior approval and intense co-ordination
on top government level and industry on executive level. The general public
is intentionally kept unaware of the existence of such projects.
the spraying actions may be considered legal these actions may have a potential
detrimental effect on health. There is sufficient scientific evidence
available in this research paper to support this thesis.
It is not
the purpose of this research paper to give a moral appreciation of these
the investigation team unanimously comes to the following recommendations
for the future:
Cirrus clouds should be classified as a separate cloud genus by the WMO.
Additional scientific research with the effects on nature and public health
on this subject should be considered. Results -whatever the outcome- should
be made public.
is unacceptable that the Awacs aircraft fleet under NATO operates under a
Luxemburg civil registration without complying with civil aviation
regulations. This is a flagrant violation of the law and this should be
corrected in the near future. Given the very unfavorable engine emission
ratios of this aircraft retrofitting of these engines should be considered
as soon as practical.
considering a legal case it is better to sue an industrial group, such as
Raytheon, rather than a government agency. It is clear for us that the
responsibility of Raytheon in this respect is far reaching with the creation
of a monopoly in climate modeling and weather as a geo-engineering or
If possible an international ban should be placed on such weapons.
the existence of weather modification projects have been illustrated in an
adequate way in this research paper it is now the duty of a serious
politician on any level to make enquiries to the government for public
release of these spraying schemes through aviation. It is mandatory that
such statement should include the reason
why such operations are conducted. It is not an option to hide behind the
motive of national security.
The investigation group
has performed the research meticulously with maximum integrity J and
we hope that our intervention will reveal the truth about climate
manipulation, exposing the real reasons to the general public, which has the
basic right to know. We also hope this research paper will contribute
towards a more peaceful world. Last but not least we thank the Belfort group
for its courage and wish them maximum success in public divulgence of this
In the name of our planet, Agent